Measurement of renal extraction fraction with contrast-enhanced CT.
ABSTRACT Study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed patient consent was waived. A method for minimization of sources of variability in measuring single-kidney extraction fraction (EF) was determined retrospectively with contrast material-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Ten adults underwent CT of the kidneys; precontrast scans were obtained, followed by postcontrast scanning 2 minutes after contrast material injection. Single-kidney EF was then calculated for each patient with the formula EF = (CT(A) - CT(V))/(CT(A) - CT(PRE)), where CT(A) and CT(V) are the postcontrast CT values (in Hounsfield units) of the systemic blood and renal venous blood, respectively, and CT(PRE) is the precontrast CT value of the blood. Both conventional two-dimensional and volumetric three-dimensional regions of interest were used for determining mean CT values of the blood. By using the volumetric regions of interest, left and right renal EF values averaged 17.3% and 18.0%, respectively, for two observers, compared with the accepted value of 15%-20%. This latter technique also minimized right-left kidney and interobserver variability in the measurement of EF.
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ABSTRACT: For almost three decades, noninvasive radionuclide procedures for the evaluation of renal disease have been important components of nuclear medicine practice. With the introduction of new imaging agents and procedures, these techniques can provide valuable data on perfusion and function of individual kidneys. In general, these procedures are easy to perform and carry a low radiation burden and sedation is not required. Moreover, radionuclide imaging of the genitourinary tract has become an invaluable asset to clinicians in the evaluation of renal parenchyma and urologic abnormalities.Radiologic Clinics of North America 02/2008; 46(1):25-43, v. · 1.95 Impact Factor
- Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging - CONTRAST MEDIA MOL IMAGING. 01/2007; 2(6):300-301.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of quantifying single kidney glomerular filtration rate (skGFR) by magnetic resonance (MR) by comparison to the clinical estimates of GFR in volunteer subjects with a single kidney. Seven IRB-approved subjects with a solitary kidney, stable serum creatinine (SCr) and a 24 h creatinine clearance (CrCl) volunteered to undergo an MR examination that determined renal extraction fraction (EF) with a breathhold inversion recovery echo planar pulse sequence and renal blood flow with a velocity encoded phase imaging sequence. The product of EF and blood flow determines GFR. These values were compared with the 24 h CrCl, estimated GFR by the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD) regression analysis and the Cockroft-Gault (CG) determination of CrCl. The mean and standard deviation of differences between the MR GFR, MDRD and CG vs the 24 h CrCl were 12.3+/-35.7, -8.9+/-18.5 and 1.2+/-19.6, respectively. The Student t-test showed that none of the mean differences were statistically significant between techniques. This clinical investigation shows that MR can be used for skGFR determination in human subjects with comparable values to those derived from clinically used serum-based GFR estimation techniques.Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging 04/2009; 4(2):51-65. · 2.87 Impact Factor