Ovariectomy in mice decreases lipid metabolism-related gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle with increased body fat.
ABSTRACT Postmenopausal women as well as rodents after ovariectomy, which results in a lack of estrogen, can become obese. Ovariectomy-induced obesity in mice is associated with a decrease in oxygen consumption, indicating repressed energy expenditure. In this study, to elucidate the mechanism of weight gain after ovariectomy, we examined the expression patterns of genes related to energy expenditure and lipid metabolism, in mouse tissues including adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. In adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, at 2-4 wk after ovariectomy, levels of nuclear receptors and cofactors involved in energy expenditure such as ERR1, PPARalpha and PPARdelta, and PGC1alpha and PGC1beta were lower than in control mice. mRNA levels of their targets, medium-chain acyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase and acetyl CoA oxidase, enzymes for fatty acid beta-oxidation, were lower. In addition, the expression of PPARgamma and SREBP1, transcription factors important for lipogenesis, was decreased, as well as that of acetyl CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase, enzymes for fatty acid synthesis, and diacyl glycerol acetyl transferase 1 and 2, enzymes for triglyceride synthesis. These changes in gene expression are consistent with the obese phenotype in mice after ovariectomy. Thus a decrease in the expression of energy expenditure-related genes in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle could, in part, be responsible for obesity after ovariectomy.
- SourceAvailable from: Juan P Steibel[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity increases colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and progression. However, the impact of obesity on CRC in women is dependent on ovarian hormone status. The purpose of this study was to determine the interactive roles of obesity and ovarian hormones on serum markers of inflammation, cell signaling, and transplanted colon tumor growth. Female C57BL/6 mice (6 wk) were either ovariectomized (OVX) or ovaries left intact (nonovariectomized, NOVX) and randomized to receive a (1) control, (2) 30% calorie-restricted (CR), or (3) diet-induced obese (DIO) diet regimen for 20 wk to induce differing levels of adiposity. Serum was collected and inflammatory and metabolic markers were measured using an antibody array (62 proteins) and ELISAs. Mice were subcutaneously injected with syngeneic MC38 colon cancer cells after 20 wk and sacrificed 4 wk later. CR mice had the smallest tumors irrespective of hormone status, whereas the largest tumors were observed in DIO-OVX mice. Glucose tolerance was impaired in OVX mice, being most severe in the DIO-OVX group. Cytokine arrays suggested that in CR animals, inhibition of tumor growth paralleled insulin sensitivity and associated changes in leptin, adiponectin, and IGF-BPs. Conversely, in DIO-OVX animals, tumor growth was associated with insulin and leptin resistance as well as higher levels of pro-inflammatory proteins. In vitro, leptin and adiponectin had no effect, whereas insulin induced MC38 cell proliferation and MAPK activation. Co-treatment with estrogen blocked the stimulatory effects of insulin. Thus, our in vitro and in vivo data indicate female reproductive hormones have a modulating effect on obesity-induced insulin resistance and inflammation, which may directly or indirectly influence CRC progression.Molecular Carcinogenesis 05/2011; 50(5):370-82. · 4.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Expansion of intra-abdominal adipose tissue and the accompanying inflammatory response has been put forward as a unifying link between obesity and the development of chronic diseases. However, an apparent sexual dimorphism exists between obesity and chronic disease risk due to differences in the distribution and abundance of adipose tissue. A range of experimental protocols have been employed to demonstrate the role of estrogen in regulating health benefits; however, most studies are confounded by significant differences in body weight and adiposity. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare weight-matched obese male and female mice to determine if the sex-dependent health benefits remain when body weight is similar. The development of obesity in female mice receiving a high-fat diet was delayed; however, subsequent comparisons of weight-matched obese mice revealed greater adiposity in obese female mice. Despite excess adiposity and enlarged adipocyte size, obese females remained more glucose tolerant than weight-matched male mice, and this benefit was associated with increased expression of adiponectin and reductions in immune cell infiltration and oxidative stress in adipose tissue. Therefore, the protective benefits of estrogen persist in the obese state and appear to improve the metabolic phenotype of adipose tissue and the individual.Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:859395. · 1.89 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Context: The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target genes promotes hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. We hypothesized that Gyeongshingangjeehwan 18 (GGEx18), a mixture of three herbs, Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), can regulate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis through PPARα activation in the liver. Objective: To investigate the effects of GGEx18 on obesity-related hepatic steatosis and the responsible mechanism. Materials and methods: The effects of GGEx18 on hepatic lipid accumulation, serum lipid profiles, and the expression of PPARα target genes were studied in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The effects of GGEx18 on the expression of the PPARα targets and PPARα reporter gene activation were measured in NMu2Li liver cells. Results: GGEx18 administration to obese mice for 9 weeks markedly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic lipid accumulation compared with that in obese control mice. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly (p <0.05) decreased by GGEx18. GGEx18 treatment increased the messenger RNA levels of PPARα target genes, which are responsible for fatty acid oxidation, in liver tissues. Consistent with the in vivo data, similar activation of genes was observed in GGEx18-treated NMu2Li liver cells. GGEx18 also elevated PPARα reporter gene expression in NMu2Li cells. Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest that GGEx18 prevents hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and this process may be mediated through PPARα activation in the liver.Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2012; 50(10):1261-8. · 1.21 Impact Factor