Article

Breast Cancer Detection Based on Incremental Biochemical and Physiological Properties of Breast Cancers

University of Pennsylvania, Department of Biochemistry, Philadelphia, 19104-6059, USA.
Academic Radiology (Impact Factor: 2.08). 09/2005; 12(8):925-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.acra.2005.04.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To demonstrate that near-infrared spectroscopy would achieve sufficient sensitivity and specificity in human breast cancer to reach ROC/AUC values in the 90s and yet to warn of the potential liabilities of introduction of a novel technology in this field.
116 subjects from two nations (44 were cancer-verified by biopsy and histopathology) were reviewed. NIR spectroscopy of total hemoglobin and its relative oxygenation were monitored in breast cancers and compared to their contralateral breast in a 2D nomogram for diagnostic evaluation. A novel handheld NIR breast cancer detector pad with a 3-wavelength LED and 8 detectors with 4 cm separation between source and detectors was placed on the subject's breast. The method is convenient, rapid, and safe and has achieved high patient compliance with minimal patient apprehension of compression, confinement, or radioactivity.
The absorbance increments of the cancerous region are referred to the mirror image location on the contralateral breast. The two metrics are increased hemoglobin concentration due to angiogenesis and decreased hemoglobin saturation due to hypermetabolism of the cancer. The 2D nomogram display of these two metrics shows Zone 1 contains verified cancers and Zone 2 contains noncancers. ROC evaluation of the nomogram gives 95% AUC for the two sites, Philadelphia and Leipzig.
A simple, economical breast cancer detector has achieved high patient compliance and a high ROC/AUC score for a population which involved a range of tumors down to and including those of 0.8-1 cm in diameter.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Brian Czerniecki, Jul 07, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
89 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A dual-band trans-rectal optical tomography system is constructed based on an endo-rectal near-infrared/ultrasound applicator that has been developed previously in our laboratory. The endo-rectal NIR/US applicator consists of a commercial bi-plane ultrasound and a NIR probe attached to the sagittal ultrasound transducer. The NIR probe consists of 7 illumination & 7 detection channels that are distributed in parallel to and aside the sagittal TRUS transducer. The emissions from a 780nm and an 830nm light sources are combined and delivered sequentially to the 7 NIR source channels of the endo-rectal NIR/US probe. The 7 NIR detection channels are coupled to a spectrometer for separation of the signals at two wavelengths illuminated from single source channel. The dual-band signals from all source channels are acquired sequentially by a CCD camera synchronized with the source switching. The acquisition of dual-band trans-rectal optical tomography data is accompanied by position-correlated concurrent trans-rectal ultrasound imaging. The reconstruction of a target at dual-wavelength illumination is guided by a priori spatial information provided by the sagittal trans-rectal ultrasound. Liquid phantoms with different hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation are used to test the feasibility of dual-band trans-rectal optical tomography.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 02/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.808232 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Magnetic resonance (MR) guided diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) has shown promise in several case studies in aiding the characterization of breast lesions[1, 2]. It has been proposed that the increased quantification and resolution with a priori structural guidance yields higher diagnostic value in characterizing tumors. To date, these systems have merged MR anatomical recovery with optical contrast recovery. However, the MR has a wealth of spectral and functional data that may aid in further improving lesion characterization by appending both new and overlapping physiological information to optical methods. It has been well documented that spectral recovery of water and lipids is inaccurate with few wavelengths. Yet, recovery of these chromophores is important both because of the possible importance of these as indicators of breast cancer, adema, and inflammation. In addition, crosstalk between water and oxyhemoglobin may lead to erroneous tissue properties, which may affect lesion diagnosis. The use of multiple MR sequences with DOS enables the separation of water and lipids via MRI, and improves recovery of tissue oxygenation and hemoglobin content. However, in most cases, MRI is not a quantitative device; this paper investigates the best reconstruction methods to incorporate this data into the optical reconstruction for quantitatively accurate chromophore recovery in the presence of imperfect MR water/fat separation. Specifically, it investigates whether incorporating water/fat information directly or through a maximum likelihood algorithm yields the optimal solution both in terms of reduced crosstalk between oxyhemoglobin and water, and compares results to having no priori knowledge of water and fat.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.808916 · 0.20 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Several hand-held based optical imaging devices have been developed towards breast imaging, which are portable, patient-comfortable, and use non-ionizing radiation. The devices developed to date are limited in that they have flat probe faces and are incapable of real-time coregistration (as needed for 3-D tomographic imaging). A hand-held based optical imager has been developed in our lab, which has unique features of (i) simultaneous over sequential source illumination, which enables rapid data acquisition, (ii) a flexible probe face, which enables it to contour to any tissue curvature, and (iii) self coregistration facilities towards 3-D tomographic imaging. Real-time coregistration is demonstrated using the imager via fluorescence-enhanced studies in the continuous-wave mode, performed on slab phantoms (filled with 1% Liposyn solution) and in vitro samples (chicken breast). Additionally, preliminary studies were conducted using curved phantoms. In all cases, a 0.45-cc target filled with 1 muM Indocyanine green was used to represent a tumor. Real-time 2-D surface images of the phantom were obtained via multiple scans at different target depths. Preliminary surface imaging studies demonstrated that the summation of multiple scans distinctly differentiated the target from artifacts (up to 3 cm deep), which was not possible from individual scans.
    Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 01/2009; DOI:10.1117/12.809928 · 0.20 Impact Factor