Neurocognitive profile in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia: Clinical correlates
ABSTRACT Neurocognitive impairments have been documented in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS; onset by age 18) and are important treatment targets. Information concerning the severity, pattern, and clinical correlates of these deficits in EOS remains limited.
Tests assessing motor skills, attention, memory, visuospatial abilities and executive functioning were administered to 54 clinically stabilized adolescents with EOS and 52 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Childhood-onset patients (onset by age 13) were compared to those with an adolescent onset of illness. Patients' neurocognitive profiles were compared to those of controls. Relationships between neurocognitive deficits and demographic and clinical characteristics were explored.
Neurocognitive profiles did not differ between childhood- and adolescent-onset participants. Patients showed a generalized neurocognitive deficit of 2.0 SDs compared to controls, with relative deficit in executive functioning and relative sparing of language and visuospatial abilities. Degree of generalized neurocognitive impairment was associated with premorbid adjustment and negative symptom severity (Adjusted R(2) = .39).
Results document both a significant generalized deficit and a relative deficit of executive functioning in adolescents with EOS. The overall pattern is similar to that observed in severely ill first-episode adult patients. The impairments across multiple neurocognitive domains suggest widespread brain dysfunction in EOS.
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ABSTRACT: Aim To provide normative values for the healthy ethnic Chinese Singaporean population and a large sample of patients with schizophrenia for the Continuous Performance Task-Identical Pairs (CPT-IP). Participants Data were collected on 1011 healthy ethnic Chinese and 654 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia, all between 21 and 55 years of age. Methods Data were stratified by age and gender. The effects of age, gender and education were explored in patients and controls. Performance indices were assessed in their ability to predict group inclusion. Controls’ performance was compared with that reported in a US sample. Results Performance was affected by age, sex, and education, with youth, male sex and higher education providing a performance advantage. Patients’ performance was lower than controls’ by more than 1 standard deviation, with the 3-digit d′ score most significantly discriminating between controls and patients. The effects of socio-demographic factors on performance were in line with those conducted in the US and previously reported in the literature. Conclusions This is the largest norming study ever conducted on the CPT-IP. It will enable investigators and clinicians to select appropriate indices to assess severity of cognitive decline and/or evaluate cognitive remediation therapy outcomes after taking into account age, gender and education factors.Schizophrenia Research 07/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.04.016 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and childhood-onset psychosis (COP) are chronic, heterogeneous disorders with symptoms that frequently co-occur, but the etiology of their comorbidity is unknown. Studies of each disorder indicate that both ADHD and COP are associated with a range of neuropsychological weaknesses, but few neuropsychological studies have directly compared groups with ADHD and COP. Groups with ADHD only (32 F, 48 M), COP only (5 F, 5 M), ADHD + COP (9 F, 21 M), and a control group with neither disorder (25 F, 44 M) completed a neuropsychological battery that included measures of verbal working memory, response inhibition, response speed and variability, and selective attention. All three clinical groups exhibited significantly lower performance versus the control group on all neuropsychological measures, whereas the only significant difference between the clinical groups was a significantly larger weakness in verbal working memory in the groups with COP. The frequent co-occurrence between COP and ADHD may reflect shared neuropsychological weaknesses that are most pronounced on measures of working memory and response variability.Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 01/2014; 55(7). DOI:10.1111/jcpp.12199 · 5.67 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comprehensive investigation of the neuropsychological strengths and weaknesses of children with autism may help to better describe their cognitive abilities and to design appropriate interventions. To this end we compared the NEPSY-II profiles of 22 children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (HFASD) with those of 44 healthy control (HC) children 2:1 matched by gender, age, race and education. Results showed that only Visuospatial Processing was relatively spared in HFASD, while deficits were observed in Attention and Executive Functions, Language, Learning and Memory, and Sensorimotor Processing. Theory of Mind difficulties were observed in verbal tasks but not in the understanding of emotional contexts, suggesting that appropriate contextual cues might help emotion understanding in HFASD children. These widespread neuropsychological impairments reflect alterations in multiple cognitive domains in HFASDJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 12/2012; · 3.34 Impact Factor