Spirituality, mindfulness and substance abuse

Department of Psychology, University of Washington Seattle, Seattle, Washington, United States
Addictive Behaviors (Impact Factor: 2.44). 09/2005; 30(7):1335-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.01.010
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness-based therapies may be effective in treating a variety of disorders including stress, chronic pain, depression and anxiety. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of mindfulness. Furthermore, mindfulness is often thought to be related to spirituality, given its roots in Buddhist tradition, but empirical studies on this relationship are difficult to find. The present study: (1) tested the reliability and validity of a new mindfulness measure, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), (2) explored the relationship between mindfulness and spirituality, and (3) investigated the relationship between mindfulness and/or spirituality and alcohol and tobacco use in an undergraduate college population (N=196). Results support the reliability of the FMI and suggest that spirituality and mindfulness may be separate constructs. In addition, smoking and frequent binge-drinking were negatively correlated with spirituality scores; as spirituality scores increased the use of alcohol and tobacco decreased. Thus, spirituality may be related to decreased substance use. In contrast, a positive relationship between mindfulness and smoking/frequent binge-drinking behavior was uncovered, and warrants further investigation.

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    ABSTRACT: Spirituality is to 'know' who you are and the knowledge of yourself understanding the highest spiritual qualities and attributes which are love, peace, purity and bliss. Spirituality is a resilient and controversial variable that has evidenced an ability to help people better cope with stress. This empirical research paper attempts to identify the relation between spirituality and stress in the student life. In student life, meaning of the spirituality is different and beyond from the prayer, religion, etc., this paper covered the factors which affect the students and engender the stress. Four types of indicators are used for measurement of stress such as behavioural indicators, emotional indicator, sleep indicator and personal habits of students. Hypothesis said there is no relation between spirituality, stress and academic life of students. Spirituality is high then stress will be low or if spirituality is low then stress will be high. Data is collected through the questionnaire based on spirituality index and stress index. 75 students have taken as participants to find out the level of spirituality and stress in scale and correlation is used for determine the relation between spirituality and stress. The result showed that there is negative correlation (r =-0.519) between the stress and spirituality of engineering students. Stress indicators showed that emotional indicators and physical indicators are high in girls than boys. 1. INTRODUCTION Stress plays an important role in the life of the individuals whether it is businessman, students, teachers and other professions. To cope with the stress people use meditation, listen good music, fun etc. depend upon which type of stress is occurring. Managing stress is all about taking charge: of your thoughts, emotions, schedule, and the way you deal with the problems. Spirituality is to know about oneself and the understanding of some supreme power through which the world is governed. Spirituality is not just about the god and religion, it is something related to elite power, it is a faith which connects a normal human being to their soul. " a person's experience of, or a belief in, a power apart from his or her own existence " (Mohr 2006). Spirituality is the bridge between what we are and where we want to reach or we can say it is hopefulness. Spirituality is the choice of human being to surrender him to one supreme power that is meaningful and desirable for him " An active choice to surrender oneself to God's will " (Wong-McDonald, 2000, p. 149). Sometimes people believe on supreme power only to mitigate the deleterious effects of the life. Spiritual coping has been effective in protecting individuals from the negative effects of death of a loved one, natural disasters, chronic illness, and acts of terrorism (Zinnbauer, Pargament, Cole, Rye, Butter, Belavich, Hipp, Scott, & Kadar, 1997). In other words spiritual is the faith and trust who save the people from the negative things. Spirituality is the way to reduce the negative effects of life such as: death, stress, illness etc. Stress is the body's instinctive response to external environment cues as well as to one's inner thoughts and feeling.Stress arises when we try to control the uncontrollable things. American institute of stress says that " Everyone knows what stress is, but nobody really knows. " Means we know about the stress and the reason of the stress but we don't focus on it in the initial stage when its effects the mind then we starts to find the solution. Types of stress: Basically, there are two types of stress: one is related to positive stress called eustress which motivate and improve performance of the individual and other one is negative stress called distress which demotivate and decrease performance of the individual, it can lead to mental and physical problems. According to the situation, stress is of three types (The Stress Solution by Lyle H. Miller, PhD, and Alma Dell Smith, PhD.): Acute stress: Acute stress is thrilling and exciting in small doses, but too much is exhausting, because it is short term, acute stress doesn't have enough time to do the extensive damage associated with long-term stress. The most common symptoms are: • Emotional distress — some combination of anger or irritability, anxiety and depression, the three stress emotions.
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    International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction 10/2014; 12(5):686-699. DOI:10.1007/s11469-014-9503-4 · 0.95 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mindfulness encompasses four core skills: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment; which aim to increase one's awareness, tolerance, and acceptance of internal experiences (Baer et al., 2004). Despite promising clinical results that mindfulness reduces alcohol craving and relapse, complementary etiological research is underdeveloped. Theory suggests that those who are motivated to drink to change internal states (reduce negative/increase positive affect) are at risk for elevated alcohol use. The ability to accept one's affective state should preclude internally-motivated drinking, and thus, elevated alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to parse out which mindfulness skills are central to alcohol use. We hypothesized that accepting without judgment would be a unique negative predictor of internally-motivated drinking (drinking for coping and enhancement motives) and alcohol use. Students (N=76) completed self-report measures of past month alcohol use and four motives for drinking: to cope, for enhancement, to conform, and for social reasons. Partially supporting our hypotheses, accepting without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for coping motives, but was unassociated with drinking for enhancement motives. Interestingly, acceptance without judgment was negatively associated with drinking for conformity motives (to reduce social rejection). Unexpectedly, acting with awareness, but not accepting without judgment, was a negative predictor of alcohol use. Our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing coping- and conformity-motivated drinking and alcohol use by young adults may benefit from incorporating mindfulness skills training (i.e., accepting without judgment; acting with awareness). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Addictive Behaviors 11/2014; 42C:222-226. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.11.027 · 2.44 Impact Factor


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