A conditioning lesion enhances sympathetic neurite outgrowth

Department of Neurosciences, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH 44106-4975, USA.
Experimental Neurology (Impact Factor: 4.62). 09/2005; 194(2):432-43. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2005.02.023
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Axonal regeneration can be influenced by a conditioning lesion (an axonal injury made prior to a second test lesion). Previously, sympathetic neurons in vivo were shown to respond to a conditioning lesion with decreased neurite outgrowth, in contrast to the enhanced outgrowth observed in all other peripheral neurons examined. The present experiments tested the effects of a conditioning lesion on neurite outgrowth in vitro from the superior cervical ganglion (SCG) and the impact of several factors on that response. Ganglia axotomized 1 week earlier and then explanted in Matrigel or collagen gel responded with a significant increase in neurite extension compared to sham-operated ganglia. A distal axotomy produced by unilateral removal of the salivary glands (sialectomy) caused an increase in neurite outgrowth similar to that of a proximal axotomy. These conditioning lesions induced both an increase in the rate of elongation, and, in the case of the proximally axotomized SCG, a shorter initial delay of outgrowth. The enhanced outgrowth following sialectomy was specific to the nerve containing the majority of axons projecting to the salivary glands, suggesting that the conditioning lesion effect is restricted to previously injured neurons. Deletion of the gene for leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a gene induced by axotomy, did not abolish the conditioning lesion effect in SCG explants or dissociated cell cultures. In conclusion, sympathetic neurons are capable of responding to a conditioning lesion with increased neurite outgrowth. The hypothesis that the neuronal cell body response to axotomy plays an important role in the conditioning lesion response is discussed.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peripheral nerves regenerate following injury due to the effective activation of the intrinsic growth capacity of the neurons and the formation of a permissive pathway for outgrowth due to Wallerian degeneration. Wallerian degeneration and subsequent regeneration are significantly influenced by various immune cells and the cytokines they secrete. Although macrophages have long been known to play a vital role in the degenerative process, recent work has pointed to their importance in influencing the regenerative capacity of peripheral neurons. In this review, we focus on the various immune cells, cytokines, and chemokines that make regeneration possible in the peripheral nervous system, with specific attention placed on the role macrophages play in this process.
    Neuroscience 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.09.027 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Studies of neuronal regeneration require examination of the axons independently of their cell bodies. Several effective strategies have been deployed to compartmentalize long axons of the peripheral nervous system (PNS). However, current strategies to compartmentalize axons of the central nervous system (CNS) may be limited by physical damage to cells during tissue dissociation or slicing, perturbation of three-dimensional tissue architecture, or insufficient axonal tissue for biological analysis.
    Journal of Neuroscience Methods 05/2014; 232. DOI:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2014.05.018 · 1.96 Impact Factor