Should yoghurt culture be considered probiotic?

Digestive System Research Unit, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.
British Journal Of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.45). 07/2005; 93(6):783-6. DOI: 10.1079/BJN20051428
Source: PubMed


Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Consumption of yoghurt has been shown to induce measurable health benefits linked to the presence of live bacteria. A number of human studies have clearly demonstrated that yoghurt containing viable bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii sp. bulgaricus) improves lactose digestion and eliminates symptoms of lactose intolerance. Thus, these cultures clearly fulfil the current concept of probiotics.

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Available from: Lorenzo Morelli, Dec 07, 2014
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    • "others have proposed that probiotics must originate from humans, be viable through the gastrointestinal tract, adhere to the intestinal wall to facilitate colonization, produce antimicrobials, and provide a demonstrable health effect (Guarner et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with increased risk for chronic diseases, and affects both developed and developing nations. Yogurt is a nutrient-dense food that may benefit individuals with lactose intolerance, constipation and diarrheal diseases, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and certain types of cancer. Emerging evidence suggests that yogurt consumption might also improve the health of obese individuals. Obesity is often accompanied by chronic, low-grade inflammation perpetuated by adipose tissue and the gut. In the gut, obesity-associated dysregulation of microbiota and impaired gut barrier function may increase endotoxin exposure. Intestinal barrier function can be compromised by pathogens, inflammatory cytokines, endocannabinoids, diet, exercise, and gastrointestinal peptides. Yogurt consumption may improve gut health and reduce chronic inflammation by enhancing innate and adaptive immune responses, intestinal barrier function, lipid profiles, and by regulating appetite. While this evidence suggests that yogurt consumption is beneficial for obese individuals, randomized-controlled trials are needed to further support this hypothesis.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 04/2015; DOI:10.1080/10408398.2014.883356 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    • "Some kind of yoghurts contain probioties, which are tiny organisms, live inside the human digestive system. Yoghurt improves lactose digestion and eliminates the symptoms of lactose intolerance (Guarner et al., 2005). Hence, it provides a nutritional alternative for people with lactose intolerance. "
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    ABSTRACT: Yoghurt is a versatile food as it is an important source of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, riboflavin, vitamin A and protein. As a fermented milk product, it is a natural source of probiotics, which helps to maintain a healthy gut and immune system. The popularity of yoghurt has increased due to its perceived health benefits resulting in significant increase in consumption. Many types of stirred yoghurt are available in the market, varying in fat, sugar, texture, flavor and type of fruits. It has keeping quality of 1-2 days at ambient temperature, and 1 week under refrigerated condition. Microbes in yoghurt may be derived from a variety of sources. The presence of microbes in daily products including yoghurt are undesirable, at these render the milk products of inferior quality. Yeasts and moulds are mainly responsible for the spoilage of yoghurt, as they are not affected by low pH. Microbiological specifications should be applied to some additive employed in the manufacture of yoghurt. Recently, the BioLumix test method has been developed for rapid detection of coliforms, yeasts and moulds. It is emphasized that the activity of starter culture used for the production of yoghurt should be critically monitored periodically to get a product of good quality. Education of food handlers about the importance of high standards of personal hygiene is very essential for hygienic production of milk products in dairy industries. In addition, the application of GHP and HACCP during the production of yoghurt is highly imperative from food safety point of view. INTRODUCTION Milk is used globally in the manufacturing of different types of dairy products. In India, people are very fond of milk made preparations, and hence, a large variety of milk products are available in the market (Pal and Jadhav,2013a). The cheese, butter, yoghurt, and milk power have captured global market. Yoghurt is one of the oldest produced foods in human history. It is a unique food, which is consumed worldwide, without the restriction of any taboo, tradition or religion. Cow milk is most commonly used worldwide to prepare yoghurt. However, the milk from goats, camel, water buffaloes, and yaks are also employed to make yoghurt. The name yoghurt is derived from the Turkish word 'Jugurt' reserved for any fermented food with acidic taste (Younus et al., 2002). In 1907, Dr.Metchnikoff co-workers isolated and named one of the yoghurt bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaris (Jay,2000). The popularity of yoghurt soared in the 1950 and 1960 with the boom of health food culture. Presently, fermented foods constitute about 25% of the foods consumed worldwide. Usually, these foods are considered safe against food borne infections (Adebayo et al.,2014). The changes in the physical, chemical and microbiological structures of yoghurt determine the storage and shelf life of the product (Sofu and Ekinci, 2007). Fungi, especially the yeasts are a major cause of spoilage of yoghurt as low pH provides a selective environment for their growth. The use of poor quality of milk, unsuitable starter culture, improperly cleaned utensils, and unfavourable temperature of incubation, are responsible to lower the quality of yoghurt (De,1980).Yoghurt should not be freezed, as it affects the texture and quality. Further, it should be protected from other foods with strong odour by sealing it tightly. Yoghurt should be kept in refrigerator after it is purchased. Clean spoon should be used to take yoghurt into the bowel. In order to avoid contamination, it is imperative not to return unused portion of yoghurt to the original container. Yoghurt produced under good manufacturing practice (GMP) should not contain > than 10 yeast cells, and should have a shelf life of 3-4 weeks at 5 0 c. Yoghurt having initial yeast counts of >100 CFU/g tend to spoil quickly (El-Bakri et al.,2009). Hygienic practices in the production can improve the microbial quality standards of yoghurt. Strict supervision and stringent quality control standards are imperative to improve the microbial safety of the product, and ultimately reduce the microbial hazards. This communication describes the hygienic and microbiologic quality of yoghurt. Manufacture of Yoghurt Yoghurt is a dairy product prepared by bacterial fermentation of milk. The equal amount of two pure culture of bacteria, namely Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaris is added to whole or defatted homogenized milk to make yoghurt (Mahindru,2009).The starter cultures determine the body, texture and flavor of the final yoghurt (Chandan and Kilara,2013).They preserve the food by
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    • "Further, the production of active β-galactosidase in the second half of the small intestine by the strain FB13 further suggests that S. thermophilus remains metabolically active during its digestive transit. This could explain the improvement of lactose digestion observed in intolerant patients after yogurt consumption [9,10]. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundFrom fundamental studies to industrial processes, synthesis of heterologous protein by micro-organisms is widely employed. The secretion of soluble heterologous proteins in the extracellular medium facilitates their recovery, while their attachment to the cell surface permits the use of the recombinant host cells as protein or peptide supports. One of the key points to carry out heterologous expression is to choose the appropriate host. We propose to enlarge the panel of heterologous secretion hosts by using Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9. This lactic acid bacterium has a generally recognised as safe status, is widely used in the manufacture of yogurts, fermented milks and cheeses, and is easy to transform by natural competence. This study demonstrates the feasibility of secretion of a heterologous protein anchored to the cell surface by S. thermophilus. For this, we used the cell envelope proteinase (CEP) PrtH of Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ32 CIRM-BIA 103.ResultsUsing S. thermophilus LMD-9 as the background host, three recombinant strains were constructed: i) a negative control corresponding to S. thermophilus PrtS- mutant where the prtS gene encoding its CEP was partially deleted; ii) a PrtH+ mutant expressing the L. helveticus PrtH pro-protein with its own motif (S-layer type) of cell-wall attachment and iii) a PrtH+WANS mutant expressing PrtH pro-protein with the LPXTG anchoring motif from PrtS. The PrtH + and PrtH + WANS genes expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR in the corresponding mutants and compared to that of prtS gene in the strain LMD-9. The expression levels of both fused prtH CEPs genes, regardless of the anchoring motif, reached up-to more than 76% of the wild-type prtS expression level. CEPs were sought and identified on the cell surface of LMD-9 wild-type strain, PrtH+ and PrtH+WANS mutants using shaving technique followed by peptide identification with tandem mass spectrometry, demonstrating that the heterologous secretion and anchoring of a protein of more than 200 kDa was efficient. The anchoring to the cell-wall seems to be more efficient when the LPXTG motif of PrtS was used instead of the S-layer motif of PrtH.ConclusionsWe demonstrated S. thermophilus LMD-9 could heterologously secrete a high molecular weight protein and probably covalently anchor it to the cell-wall.
    Microbial Cell Factories 06/2014; 13(1):82. DOI:10.1186/1475-2859-13-82 · 4.22 Impact Factor
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