ATM signaling and 53BP1.
ABSTRACT The ATM (mutated in Ataxia-Telangiectasia) protein kinase is an important player in signaling the presence of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in higher eukaryotes. Recent studies suggest that ATM monitors the presence of DNA DSBs indirectly, through DNA DSB-induced changes in chromatin structure. One of the proteins that sense these chromatin structure changes is 53BP1, a DNA damage checkpoint protein conserved in all eukaryotes and the putative ortholog of the S. cerevisiae RAD9 protein. We review here the mechanisms by which ATM is activated in response to DNA DSBs, as well as key ATM substrates that control cell cycle progression, apoptosis and DNA repair.
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ABSTRACT: Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) is an extrahepatic enzyme that mainly expresses in human respiratory system, and it is reported to mediate the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Due to the structural similarity, AFG1 is predicted to be metabolized by CYP2A13. However, the role of CYP2A13 in metabolic activation of AFG1 is unclear. In present study, human bronchial epithelial cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13) were used to conduct the effects of AFG1 on cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA damages, and their response protein expression. Low concentrations of AFG1 induced significant cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was consistent with the increased expressions of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as C-PARP and C-caspase-3. In addition, AFG1 increased 8-OHdG and γH2AX in the nuclies and induced S phase arrest and DNA damage in B-2A13 cells, and the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and γH2AX, were activated. All the above effects were inhibited by nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 8-MOP (an inhibitor of CYP enzymes), confirming that CYP2A13 mediated the AFG1-induced cytotoxicity and DNA damages. Collectively, our findings first demonstrate that CYP2A13 might be an efficient enzyme in metabolic activation of AFG1 and helps provide a new insight into adverse effects of AFG1 in human respiratory system.Archives of Toxicology 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00204-013-1108-3 · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pyruvate is an endogenous antioxidant substance. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of ethyl pyruvate (EP) on retinal vascular injury in diabetic retinopathy. To investigate the protective effect of EP on vascular cell apoptosis and blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakage, we have used intravitreally methylglyoxal-(MGO-) injected rat eyes. Apoptosis of the retinal vascular cell that was stimulated by the intravitreal injection of MGO was evidently attenuated by the EP treatment. EP exerts inhibitory effect on MGO-induced vascular cell apoptosis by blocking oxidative injury. In addition, EP treatment prevented MGO-induced BRB breakage and the degradation of occludin, an important tight junction protein. These observations suggest that EP acts through an antioxidant mechanism to protect against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in retinal vessels.Journal of Diabetes Research 02/2013; 2013:460820. DOI:10.1155/2013/460820 · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells are frequently at risk of DNA damage from multiple sources. Accordingly, cells have evolved the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways to monitor the integrity of their genome. Conceptually, DDR pathways contain three major components (some with overlapping functions): sensors, signal transducers, and effectors. At the level of sensors, ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated) and ATR (ATM-Rad3-related) are proximal kinases that act as the core sensors of and are central to the entire DDR. These two kinases function to detect various forms of damaged DNA and trigger DNA damage response cascades. If cells harbor DDR defects and fail to repair the damaged DNA, it would cause genomic instability and, as a result, lead to cellular transformation. Indeed, deficiencies of DDR frequently occur in human cancers. Interestingly, this property of cancer also provides a great opportunity for cancer therapy. For example, by using a synthetic lethality model to search for the effective drugs, ChK1 inhibitors have been shown to selectively target the tumor cells with p53 mutations. In addition, the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1) showed selectively killing effects on the cells with defects of homologous recombination (HR), particularly in the context of BRCA1/2 mutations. Since Brit1 is a key regulator in DDR and HR repair, we believe that we can develop a similar strategy to target cancers with Brit1 deficiency. Currently, we are conducting a high-throughput screening to identify novel compounds that specifically target the Brit1-deficient cancer which will lead to development of effective personalized drugs to cure cancer in clinic.World Journal of Surgery 04/2009; 33(4):661-666. DOI:10.1007/s00268-008-9840-1 · 2.35 Impact Factor