Thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide-N-propylacrylamide-vinyl pyrrolidone terpolymers: synthesis, characterization and preliminary application as embolic agents.

Research Institute of Polymeric Materials, Tianjin Universtiy, PR China.
Biomaterials (Impact Factor: 8.31). 01/2006; 26(34):7002-11. DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.05.094
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this article, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm)-N-propylacrylamide (NPAAm)-vinyl pyrrolidone (VP) terpolymers (PNINAVP) were prepared by varying feed ratios with free radical copolymerization method. The composition ratios and molecular weights of PNINAVP were examined by NMR and GPC. The thermo-responsive behaviors of copolymer solutions in the absence and with addition of Iohexol, a radiopaque agent, were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rheometer. The sol-gel transition of the copolymer solutions occurred reversibly within 1 min in response to temperature. Incorporation of Iohexol increased the transition time and transition temperature of PNINAVP solutions; the rheological properties were also influenced. It was observed that at body temperature, PNINAVP and Iohexol could form an integrated bulky hydrogel presumably due to the hydrogen bonding between them, which was favorable for the clinical follow-up and reducing toxic side effects. In vitro embolic model experiment indicated that 5 wt% 16:16:1H PNINAVP solution containing Iohexol displayed a satisfactory embolization effect. This solution was injected into the rete mirabiles (RM) of six swines through a microcatheter. The angiographical results obtained immediately after the operation showed a complete occlusion of the RM, and no recanalization was observed at postoperative month 1. The histological examination demonstrated no acute inflammatory reaction inside the RM and surrounding tissue. This work could provide a beneficial guidance for designing a new temperature-sensitive polymer-based embolic agent.

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