Auditory recovery cycle dysfunction in schizophrenia: a study using event-related potentials.
ABSTRACT Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies reported evidence of impaired auditory information processing in patients with schizophrenia. The recovery cycle of the auditory N1 ERP component was measured in 17 patients with schizophrenia and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Subjects performed a visual distraction task while listening to 80-dB SPL, 1000-Hz tone pairs, presented with intra-pair intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 7 s, with inter-pair intervals of 9-13 s. Patients with schizophrenia had significantly reduced N1 amplitudes for S1 stimuli compared with healthy volunteers. For N1 amplitudes elicited by S2 stimuli, there was a significant group effect whilst the main effect of intra-pair interval was not significant. These results provide additional evidence of inhibitory auditory processing deficits in schizophrenia.
- SourceAvailable from: Judith M Ford[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The role of a reduced N100 (or N1) component of the auditory event related potential as a potential trait marker of schizophrenia is critically discussed in this review. We suggest that the extent of the N100 amplitude reduction in schizophrenia depends on experimental and subject factors, as well as on clinical variables: N100 is more consistently reduced in studies using interstimulus intervals (ISIs) >1 s than in studies using shorter ISIs. An increase of the N100 amplitude by allocation of attention is often lacking in schizophrenia patients. A reduction of the N100 amplitude is nevertheless also observed when such an allocation is not required, proposing that both endogenous and exogenous constituents of the N100 are affected by schizophrenia. N100 is more consistently reduced in medicated than unmedicated patients, but a reduction of the N100 amplitude as a consequence of antipsychotic medication was shown in only two of seven studies. In line with that, the association between the N100 reduction and degree of psychopathology of patients appears to be weak overall. A reduced N100 amplitude is found in first degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, but the risk of developing schizophrenia is not reflected in the N100 amplitude reduction.Psychiatry Research 10/2008; 161(3):259-74. DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2008.03.017 · 2.68 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Suppression of P50, N100 and P200 auditory evoked responses in a dual-click procedure is considered an index for the multistage sensory gating process. Whereas most studies use a protocol with long interstimulus intervals of 8-12 s between the stimuli pairs, there is also evidence that sensory gating occurs at much lower intervals. The aim of the study was to investigate whether a simple modified dual-click protocol with short interstimulus intervals elicts similar sensory gating ratios compared to the classic protocol. P50, N100 and P200 amplitudes and sensory gating ratios were measured in 23 healthy subjects with 2 different dual-click protocols in 1 session: (1) a simple oddball modified with short interstimulus intervals of about 2.8 s (ISI2), and (2), the classic used with long intervals of about 8 s (ISI8). The amplitudes of the P50, N100 and P200 responses were mostly comparable and correlated between both protocols. Mean sensory gating ratios (ISI8/ISI2) were as follows: P50, 35.4/36.4%; N40P50, 36.1/39.9%; N100, 44.4/48.4%; P200, 46.8/43.3%; N100P200, 45.3/41.8%; all differences between protocols, p > 0.1. P50 ratio scores did not show a sufficient correlation between protocols [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) P50, 0.13; N40P50, 0.0] compared to N100 (ICC, 0.79), P200 (ICC, 0.6) and N100P200 (ICC, 0.61). Our results contradict the assumption that long interstimulus intervals of about 8 s are absolutely necessary to elicit a marked sensory gating phenomenon for P50, N100 and P200 auditory responses (at least when using a protocol with a simple attention task). However, because only healthy subjects were investigated, no prediction can be made for psychiatric patients, in whom neuronal processing may be different.Neuropsychobiology 09/2008; 58(1):11-8. DOI:10.1159/000154475 · 2.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The current review constitutes the first comprehensive look at the possibility that the mismatch negativity (MMN, the deflection of the auditory ERP/ERF elicited by stimulus change) might be generated by so-called fresh-afferent neuronal activity. This possibility has been repeatedly ruled out for the past 30 years, with the prevailing theoretical accounts relying on a memory-based explanation instead. We propose that the MMN is, in essence, a latency- and amplitude-modulated expression of the auditory N1 response, generated by fresh-afferent activity of cortical neurons that are under nonuniform levels of adaptation.Psychophysiology 08/2009; 47(1):66-122. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-8986.2009.00856.x · 3.18 Impact Factor