The inv dup(15) or idic(15) syndrome: a clinically recognisable neurogenetic disorder.
ABSTRACT The chromosome region 15q11q13 is known for its instability, and many rearrangements may occur in this imprinted segment: deletions associated either with Angelman syndrome (AS) or with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), according to parental origin; translocations; inversions; and supernumerary marker chromosomes formed by the inverted duplication of proximal chromosome 15. Inv dup(15) constitute the most common of the heterogeneous group of the extra structurally abnormal chromosomes, and their presence results in tetrasomy 15p and partial tetrasomy 15q. Inv dup(15), containing the Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region, are associated with altered behaviour, developmental delay/mental retardation, and seizures/epilepsy. Clinicians should suspect this syndrome in any infant/child with early central hypotonia, minor dysmorphic features, developmental delay, autism or autistic-like behaviour, and who subsequently develops hard to control seizures/epilepsy. Diagnosis is confirmed by standard cytogenetic techniques and FISH analysis. Although, about 100 cases have been reported to date, limited data are available on the natural history. To obtain better information on diagnosis and outcome in a clinical setting, we reviewed the available literature on clinical and behavioural phenotype of inv dup(15) syndrome.
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ABSTRACT: The 15q11q13 region is subject to imprinting and is involved in various structural rearrangements. Less than 1% of Angelman Syndrome patients are due to translocations involving 15q11q13. These translocations can arise de novo or result from the segregation of chromosomes involved in a familial balanced translocation. A 5-year-old Mexican girl presented with developmental delay, minor dysmorphic features and history of exotropia. G-banding chromosome analysis established the diagnosis of Angelman Syndrome resulting from a familial translocation t(10;15) involving the 15q11.2 region. The available family members were studied using banding and molecular cytogenetic techniques, including Microarray-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization, which revealed additional unexpected results: a coincidental and smaller 15q deletion, asymptomatic duplications in 15q11.2 and Xp22.31 regions. This report demonstrates the usefulness of array CGH for a detailed characterization of familial translocations, including the detection of submicroscopic copy number variations, which would otherwise be missed by karyotype analysis alone. Our report also expands two molecularly characterized rare patient cohorts: Angelman Syndrome patients due to familial translocations and patients with 15q11.2 duplications of paternal origin.Molecular Cytogenetics 12/2015; 8(1). DOI:10.1186/s13039-015-0127-6 · 2.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a number of behavioral and social features. Although the etiology of most cases of ASD is idiopathic, a significant number of cases can be attributed to genetic causes, such as chromosome 15q duplications [dup(15q)]. Recent neuropathological investigations have provided evidence for distinct patterns of heterotopias and dysplasias in ASD and subjects with both ASD and dup(15q). Individuals with ASD characteristically have hearing difficulties and we have previously demonstrated significant and consistent hypoplasia in a number of auditory brainstem nuclei in subjects with ASD. Herein, we compare results from a morphometric investigation of auditory brainstem nuclei in subjects with ASD, dup(15q) and controls. Our observations in subjects with ASD support our previous reports. However, in subjects with dup(15q), we find significantly fewer neurons and in many nuclei, neurons were significantly smaller than in ASD subjects. Finally, we find a notably higher incidence of ectopic neurons in dup(15q). These results suggest that in the brainstem, these neuropathological conditions may evolve from some of the same developmental errors but are distinguished on microscopic features. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Neuroscience 12/2014; 286. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.11.033 · 3.33 Impact Factor