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    ABSTRACT: The powerful action of antioxidants in preventing premature lipid oxidation in food suggests that the same compounds, when consumed with the daily diet, could unfold antioxidative/anti-aging effects in the human body. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that antioxidants are helpful in preventing various diseases. More detailed chemical and physiological examination of antioxidants shows, however, that the extrapolation of in vitro data to in vivo behavior may be misleading. Indeed, such a procedure fails to take into account the mismatch between most in vitro models (e.g., cell cultures) and in vivo systems. For example, the physiological relevance of pro-oxidative and other physiological activities of antioxidants have been largely underestimated. Actually, contrary to the antioxidant hypothesis, clinical trials testing the health benefits of dietary antioxidants have reported rather mixed or negative results. Many clinical studies have not taken into account the nutrikinetic and nutridynamic nature of antioxidants. Further, oxidative stress is not only an inevitable event in a healthy human cell, but responsible for the functioning of vital metabolic processes, such as insulin signaling and erythropoietin production. In the light of recent physiological studies it appears more advisable to maintain the delicate redox balance of the cell than to interfere with the antioxidant homeostasis by a non-physiological, excessive exogenous supply of antioxidants in healthy humans.
    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 02/2012; 52(2):162-71. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2010.499481 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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    Oxidative Stress and Chronic Degenerative Disorders - A Role for Antioxidants, 1 edited by Jose A. Morales-Gonzalez, 05/2013: chapter 10: pages 233-264; InTech., ISBN: 978-953-51-1123-8
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    ABSTRACT: Hearing loss encompasses both temporary and permanent deficits. If temporary threshold shift (TTS) and permanent threshold shift (PTS) share common pathological mechanisms, then agents that reduce PTS also should reduce TTS. Several antioxidant agents have reduced PTS in rodent models; however, reductions in TTS have been inconsistent. This study first determined whether dietary antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins C and E) delivered in combination with magnesium (Mg) reliably increase plasma concentrations of the active agents. Then, additional manipulations tested the hypothesis that these nutrients reduce acute TTS insult in the first 24 h after loud sound as well as longer lasting changes in hearing measured up to 7 days postnoise. Saline or nutrients were administered to guinea pigs prior to and after noise exposure. Sound-evoked electrophysiological responses were measured before noise, with tests repeated 1-h postnoise, as well as 1-day, 3-days, 5-days, and 7-days postnoise. All subjects showed significant functional recovery; subjects treated with nutrients recovered more rapidly and had better hearing outcomes at early postnoise times as well as the final test time. Thus, this combination of nutrients, which produced significant increases in plasma concentrations of vitamins C and E and Mg, effectively reduced hearing loss at multiple postnoise times. These data suggest that free radical formation contributes to TTS as well as PTS insults and suggest a potential opportunity to prevent TTS in human populations.
    07/2011; 158(1):54-70. DOI:10.1016/j.trsl.2011.02.003