Akt-mediated valosin-containing protein 97 phosphorylation regulates its association with ubiquitinated proteins
ABSTRACT Hypoxia is a common environmental stress that influences signaling pathways and cell function. Previous studies from our laboratory have identified significant differences in cellular responses to sustained or intermittent hypoxia with the latter proving more cytotoxic. We hypothesized that differences in susceptibility of neurons to intermittent (IH) and sustained hypoxia (SH) are mediated by altered Akt signaling. SH, but not IH, induced a significant increase in Akt activation in rat CA1 hippocampal region extracts compared with room air controls. Akt immunoprecipitations followed by proteomic analysis identified valosin-containing protein (VCP) as an Akt-binding protein. In addition, VCP expression and association with Akt was enhanced during SH, and this association was decreased upon phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt pathway blockade with LY294002. Active recombinant Akt phosphorylated recombinant VCP in vitro. Site-directed mutagenesis studies identified Ser352, Ser746, and Ser748 as Akt phosphorylation sites on VCP. In addition, rat CA1 hippocampal tissue exposed to SH exhibited an acidic pI shift of VCP. Protein phosphatase 2A treatment inhibited this acidic shift consistent with SH-induced phosphorylation of VCP in vivo. PC-12 cells transfected with active Akt, but not dominant negative Akt or vector, induced VCP expression and an acidic shift in VCP pI, which was inhibited by protein phosphatase 2A treatment. Furthermore, VCP association with ubiquitinated proteins was demonstrated in vector-transfected PC-12 cell lysates, whereas active Akt-transfected cells demonstrated a marked decrease in association of VCP with ubiquitinated proteins. We concluded that Akt phosphorylates VCP in vitro and in vivo, and VCP phosphorylation releases it from ubiquitinated substrate protein(s) possibly allowing ubiquitinated protein(s) to be degraded by the proteosome.
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ABSTRACT: P97/CDC-48 is a prominent member of a highly evolutionary conserved Walker cassette - containing AAA+ ATPases. It has been involved in numerous cellular processes ranging from the control of protein homeostasis to membrane trafficking through the intervention of specific accessory proteins. Expression of p97/CDC-48 in cancers has been correlated with tumor aggressiveness and prognosis, however the precise underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be characterized. Moreover p97/CDC-48 inhibitors were developed and are currently under intense investigation as anticancer drugs. Herein, we discuss the role of p97/CDC-48 in cancer development and its therapeutic potential in tumor cell biology.Cancer letters 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.canlet.2013.05.030 · 5.02 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) diseases such as arterial hypertension, heart failure, and stroke. Based on human research, sympathetic activation, inflammation, and oxidative stress are thought to play major roles in the pathophysiology of OSA-related CV diseases. Animal models of OSA have shown that endothelial dysfunction, vascular remodelling, and systemic and pulmonary arterial hypertension as well as heart failure can develop in response to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). The available animal data are clearly in favour of oxidative stress playing a key role in the development of all of these CV manifestations of OSA. Presumably, the oxidative stress is due to an activation of NADPH oxidase and other free oxygen radicals producing enzymes within the CV system as evidenced by data from knockout mice and pharmacological interventions. It is hoped that animal models of OSA-related CV disease will continue to contribute to a deeper understanding of their underlying pathophysiology and will foster the way for the development of cardioprotective treatment options other than conventional CPAP therapy.Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 03/2013; 2013:234631. DOI:10.1155/2013/234631 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Molecular chaperones and their associated cofactors form a group of highly specialized proteins that orchestrate the folding and unfolding of other proteins and the assembly and disassembly of protein complexes. Chaperones are found in all cell types and organisms, and their activity must be tightly regulated to maintain normal cell function. Indeed, deregulation of protein folding and protein complex assembly is the cause of various human diseases. Here, we present the results of an extensive review of the literature revealing that the post-translational modification (PTM) of chaperones has been selected during evolution as an efficient mean to regulate the activity and specificity of these key proteins. Because the addition and reciprocal removal of chemical groups can be triggered very rapidly, this mechanism provides an efficient switch to precisely regulate the activity of chaperones on specific substrates. The large number of PTMs detected in chaperones suggests that a combinatory code is at play to regulate function, activity, localization, and substrate specificity for this group of biologically important proteins. This review surveys the core information currently available as a starting point towards the more ambitious endeavor of deciphering the "chaperone code".Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 02/2013; 1829(5). DOI:10.1016/j.bbagrm.2013.02.010 · 4.66 Impact Factor