Transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis of dexamethasone phosphate using drug loaded hydrogel.
ABSTRACT To evaluate dexamethasone penetration to the eye after a short transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis using a drug loaded hydrogel assembled on a portable iontophoretic device.
Iontophoresis of dexamethasone phosphate was studied in healthy rabbits using drug loaded disposable HEMA hydrogel sponges and portable iontophoretic device. Corneal iontophoretic administration was performed with a current intensity of 1 mA for 1 and 4 min. Transconjunctival and transscleral iontophoresis were performed twice for 2 min at two near places in the pars-plana area, on the conjunctival membrane or directly on the sclera. Dexamethasone concentrations were assayed using HPLC.
Dexamethasone levels in the rabbit cornea after a single transcorneal iontophoresis for 1 min were up to 30 fold higher compared to those obtained after frequent eye drop instillation. Also, high drug concentrations were obtained in the retina and sclera 4 h after transscleral iontophoresis.
A short low current non-invasive iontophoretic treatment using dexamethasone-loaded hydrogels has potential clinical value in increasing drug penetration to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye.
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ABSTRACT: Transport of drugs applied by traditional dosage forms is restricted to the eye, and therapeutic drug concentrations in the target tissues are not maintained for a long duration since the eyes are protected by a unique anatomy and physiology. For the treatment of the anterior segment of the eye, various droppable products to prolong the retention time on the ocular surface have been introduced in the market. On the other hand, direct intravitreal implants, using biodegradable or non-biodegradable polymer technology, have been widely investigated for the treatment of chronic vitreoretinal diseases. There is urgent need to develop ocular drug delivery systems which provide controlled release for the treatment of chronic diseases, and increase patient’s and doctor’s convenience to reduce the dosing frequency and invasive treatment. In this article, progress of ocular drug delivery systems under clinical trials and in late experimental stage is reviewed.Polymers. 01/2011;