Transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis of dexamethasone phosphate using drug loaded hydrogel.
ABSTRACT To evaluate dexamethasone penetration to the eye after a short transcorneal and transscleral iontophoresis using a drug loaded hydrogel assembled on a portable iontophoretic device.
Iontophoresis of dexamethasone phosphate was studied in healthy rabbits using drug loaded disposable HEMA hydrogel sponges and portable iontophoretic device. Corneal iontophoretic administration was performed with a current intensity of 1 mA for 1 and 4 min. Transconjunctival and transscleral iontophoresis were performed twice for 2 min at two near places in the pars-plana area, on the conjunctival membrane or directly on the sclera. Dexamethasone concentrations were assayed using HPLC.
Dexamethasone levels in the rabbit cornea after a single transcorneal iontophoresis for 1 min were up to 30 fold higher compared to those obtained after frequent eye drop instillation. Also, high drug concentrations were obtained in the retina and sclera 4 h after transscleral iontophoresis.
A short low current non-invasive iontophoretic treatment using dexamethasone-loaded hydrogels has potential clinical value in increasing drug penetration to the anterior and posterior segments of the eye.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Drug metabolism and transport processes in the liver, intestine and kidney that affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of therapeutic agents have been studied extensively. In contrast, comparatively little research has been conducted on these topics as they pertain to the eye. Recently, however, catalytic functions of ocular cytochrome P450 enzymes have gained increasing attention, in large part due to the roles of CYP1B1 and CYP4V2 variants in primary congenital glaucoma and Bietti's corneoretinal crystalline dystrophy, respectively. In this review, we discuss challenges to ophthalmic drug delivery, including Phase I drug metabolism and transport in the eye, and the role of three specific P450s, CYP4B1, CYP1B1 and CYP4V2 in ocular inflammation and genetically determined ocular disease.Drug metabolism reviews. 05/2014;
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ABSTRACT: The basic concepts, major mechanisms, technological developments and advantages of the topical application of lipid-based systems (microemulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles), polymeric systems (hydrogels, contact lenses, polymeric nanoparticles and dendrimers) and physical methods (iontophoresis and sonophoresis) will be reviewed. Although very convenient for patients, topical administration of conventional drug formulations for the treatment of eye diseases requires high drug doses, frequent administration and rarely provides high drug bioavailability. Thus, strategies to improve the efficacy of topical treatments have been extensively investigated. In general, the majority of the successful delivery systems are present on the ocular surface over an extended period of time, and these systems typically improve drug bioavailability in the anterior chamber whereas the physical methods facilitate drug penetration over a very short period of time through ocular barriers, such as the cornea and sclera. Although in the early stages, the combination of these delivery systems with physical methods would appear to be a promising tool to decrease the dose and frequency of administration; thereby, patient compliance and treatment efficacy will be improved.The Journal of pharmacy and pharmacology. 04/2014; 66(4):507-30.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Recent advances in pharmacological therapies to treat ocular diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic macular edema and retinal vascular occlusions have greatly improved the prognosis for these diseases. Due to these advances in pharmacological therapy, there is a great deal of interest in minimally invasive delivery methods, which has generated rapid developments in the field of ocular drug delivery. Areas covered: This review will summarize currently available and recent developments for ocular drug delivery to both the anterior and posterior segments. Modes of delivery, including topical, systemic, transcleral/periocular and intravitreal, will be discussed and corresponding examples will be given. This review will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of each mode of delivery and discuss strategies to address these issues. Expert opinion: An ideal therapy should maintain effective levels of drug for the intended duration of treatment following a single application, yet a significant number of months of therapy may be required. There are numerous approaches under investigation to improve treatment options. From the use of novel biomaterial implants and depots for sustained release, to prodrug formations, to iontophoresis to improve drug delivery, the main emphasis will continue to be placed on less invasive, longer acting, sustained release formulations in the treatment of numerous ocular disorders.Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 06/2014; · 4.12 Impact Factor