A prospective study of changes in bone turnover and bone density associated with regaining weight in women with anorexia nervosa
ABSTRACT Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of self-induced weight loss, associated with an intense fear of gaining weight. Previous studies have shown that bone density may increase with regaining and maintaining normal weight; however, relatively little is known about the changes in bone metabolism that occur during weight restoration. We describe the effect of weight restoration and maintenance of weight over 1 year on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. We recruited women from the eating disorders services at the South West London and St George's Mental Health NHS Trust, and the Priory and Charter Nightingale Hospitals in London, UK. Details of their AN, fracture history, menstrual history and exercise were obtained by interview and case note review. Morning samples of blood and second void urine were taken for biochemical analysis. BMD was measured by DXA at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), distal radius (RD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC). Patients then entered the treatment program, which includes re-feeding, dietary education and psychotherapy. Over a period of 42 months, we recruited 55 women who agreed to participate in this study and underwent baseline investigations. Of these, 15 (27%) subjects achieved and then maintained their target weight for the duration of the study. At baseline for all subjects (n=55) estradiol levels were lower than the normal reference ranges (both follicular and luteal phases) in 91% of the women. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations were lower than the premenopausal reference range in 55% of women, and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was above the premenopausal reference range in 78% of women. Baseline lumbar spine BMD was positively related to BMI (Pearson's r=0.29, P=0.04) and inversely related to bone turnover markers: urinary DPD (Pearson's r=-0.39, P=0.01 and serum BSAP (Pearson's r=-0.3, P=0.06). The 15 patients who regained and maintained weight were followed-up for a mean duration of 69 weeks (SD 7.3, range 54 to 84 weeks). Mean BMI increased from 14.2 (1.7) to 20.2 (0.77) kg/m2 and remained stable throughout follow-up. Menstruation resumed in 8 of the 15 women. Total body BMC and LS BMD increased significantly over the duration of follow-up (by 4.3% each), but FN BMD and distal radius remained stable. Lumbar spine bone area also increased significantly, whereas FN and distal radius did not. These changes were associated with a significant increase in BSAP (P=0.01), and a non-significant trend for a decrease in DPD (P=0.10). Our findings suggest that when women are at low body weight they are in a hypo-estrogenic state, which is associated with imbalance of bone turnover (high bone resorption and low bone formation). This is reversed with weight gain and persists as target weight is maintained and is associated with increases in BMC and BMD.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study is intended to compare musculoskeletal characteristics and Bone Mineral Density (BMD)-related factors between male and female students in a university. Methods: This descriptive study used self-report questionnaires and physical measurements to collect data. Subjects were 64 male and 67 female university students. The questionnaires asked BMD-related factors such as diet, exercise, mental health, and lifestyle. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, -test, Fisher's exact test and correlation analysis. Results: The male group showed better back strength, balance, endurance, physical activity, and musculoskeletal health management than the female group. Depression and smoking rates were higher in the male group than in the female group. No difference was found in diet between the two groups. Conclusion: The results suggest to develop gender-specific strategies to increase BMD in university students.12/2013; 20(3). DOI:10.5953/JMJH.2013.20.3.161
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ABSTRACT: The Female Athlete Triad is a medical condition often observed in physically active girls and women, and involves three components: (1) low energy availability with or without disordered eating, (2) menstrual dysfunction and (3) low bone mineral density. Female athletes often present with one or more of the three Triad components, and an early intervention is essential to prevent its progression to serious endpoints that include clinical eating disorders, amenorrhoea and osteoporosis. This consensus statement represents a set of recommendations developed following the 1st (San Francisco, California, USA) and 2nd (Indianapolis, Indiana, USA) International Symposia on the Female Athlete Triad. It is intended to provide clinical guidelines for physicians, athletic trainers and other healthcare providers for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of the Female Athlete Triad and to provide clear recommendations for return to play. The 2014 Female Athlete Triad Coalition Consensus Statement on Treatment and Return to Play of the Female Athlete Triad expert panel has proposed a risk stratification point system that takes into account magnitude of risk to assist the physician in decision-making regarding sport participation, clearance and return to play. Guidelines are offered for clearance categories, management by a multidisciplinary team and implementation of treatment contracts. This consensus paper has been endorsed by the Female Athlete Triad Coalition, an International Consortium of leading Triad researchers, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Medical Society for Sports Medicine.British Journal of Sports Medicine 01/2014; 48(4):289-289. DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2013-093218
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ABSTRACT: The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) represents a syndrome of three interrelated conditions that originate from chronically inadequate energy intake to compensate for energy expenditure; this environment results in insufficient stored energy to maintain physiological processes, a condition known as low energy availability. The physiological adaptations associated with low energy availability, in turn, contribute to menstrual cycle disturbances. The downstream effects of both low energy availability and suppressed estrogen concentrations synergistically impair bone health, leading to low bone mineral density, compromised bone structure and microarchitecture, and ultimately, a decrease in bone strength. Unlike the other components of the Triad, poor bone health often does not have overt symptoms, and therefore develops silently, unbeknownst to the athlete. Compromised bone health among female athletes increases the risk of fracture throughout the lifespan, highlighting the long-term health consequences of the Triad. The purpose of this review is to examine the current state of Triad research related to the third component of the Triad, ie, poor bone health, in an effort to summarize what we know, what we are learning, and what remains unknown.International Journal of Women's Health 01/2014; 6:451-467. DOI:10.2147/IJWH.S38603