Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a condition of self-induced weight loss, associated with an intense fear of gaining weight. Previous studies have shown that bone density may increase with regaining and maintaining normal weight; however, relatively little is known about the changes in bone metabolism that occur during weight restoration. We describe the effect of weight restoration and maintenance of weight over 1 year on bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover. We recruited women from the eating disorders services at the South West London and St George's Mental Health NHS Trust, and the Priory and Charter Nightingale Hospitals in London, UK. Details of their AN, fracture history, menstrual history and exercise were obtained by interview and case note review. Morning samples of blood and second void urine were taken for biochemical analysis. BMD was measured by DXA at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), distal radius (RD) and total body bone mineral content (BMC). Patients then entered the treatment program, which includes re-feeding, dietary education and psychotherapy. Over a period of 42 months, we recruited 55 women who agreed to participate in this study and underwent baseline investigations. Of these, 15 (27%) subjects achieved and then maintained their target weight for the duration of the study. At baseline for all subjects (n=55) estradiol levels were lower than the normal reference ranges (both follicular and luteal phases) in 91% of the women. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) concentrations were lower than the premenopausal reference range in 55% of women, and urinary deoxypyridinoline (DPD) was above the premenopausal reference range in 78% of women. Baseline lumbar spine BMD was positively related to BMI (Pearson's r=0.29, P=0.04) and inversely related to bone turnover markers: urinary DPD (Pearson's r=-0.39, P=0.01 and serum BSAP (Pearson's r=-0.3, P=0.06). The 15 patients who regained and maintained weight were followed-up for a mean duration of 69 weeks (SD 7.3, range 54 to 84 weeks). Mean BMI increased from 14.2 (1.7) to 20.2 (0.77) kg/m2 and remained stable throughout follow-up. Menstruation resumed in 8 of the 15 women. Total body BMC and LS BMD increased significantly over the duration of follow-up (by 4.3% each), but FN BMD and distal radius remained stable. Lumbar spine bone area also increased significantly, whereas FN and distal radius did not. These changes were associated with a significant increase in BSAP (P=0.01), and a non-significant trend for a decrease in DPD (P=0.10). Our findings suggest that when women are at low body weight they are in a hypo-estrogenic state, which is associated with imbalance of bone turnover (high bone resorption and low bone formation). This is reversed with weight gain and persists as target weight is maintained and is associated with increases in BMC and BMD.
"These case studies demonstrate that weight gain can lead to significant increases in BMD if an adequate energy state is achieved and adequate time has passed to allow for measurable changes in BMD. It must be noted, however, that in larger samples which have primarily been composed of anorexic women and adolescents, investigators have reported both minimal changes and increases in BMD with weight gain [40,41], highlighting the need for more research in this area. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Increasing caloric intake is a promising treatment for exercise-associated amenorrhea, but strategies have not been fully explored. The purpose of this case report was to compare and contrast the responses of two exercising women with amenorrhea of varying duration to an intervention of increased energy intake. Two exercising women with amenorrhea of short (3 months) and long (11 months) duration were chosen to demonstrate the impact of increased caloric intake on recovery of menstrual function and bone health. Repeated measures of dietary intake, eating behavior, body weight, body composition, bone mineral density, resting energy expenditure, exercise volume, serum metabolic hormones and markers of bone turnover, and daily urinary metabolites were obtained. Participant 1 was 19 years old and had a body mass index (BMI) of 20.4 kg/m2 at baseline. She increased caloric intake by 276 kcal/day (1,155 kJ/day, 13%), on average, during the intervention, and her body mass increased by 4.2 kg (8%). Participant 2 was 24 years old and had a BMI of 19.7 kg/m2. She increased caloric intake by 1,881 kcal/day (7,870 kJ/day, 27%) and increased body mass by 2.8 kg (5%). Resting energy expenditure, triiodothyronine, and leptin increased; whereas, ghrelin decreased in both women. Resumption of menses occurred 23 and 74 days into the intervention for the women with short-term and long-term amenorrhea, respectively. The onset of ovulation and regular cycles corresponded with changes in body weight. Recovery of menses coincided closely with increases in caloric intake, weight gain, and improvements in the metabolic environment; however, the nature of restoration of menstrual function differed between the women with short-term versus long-term amenorrhea.
Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 08/2013; 10(1):34. DOI:10.1186/1550-2783-10-34 · 1.91 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: SummaryHip fractures are the most important type of fracture. Trends in their incidence and a possible relationship with treatments
for osteoporosis are subject of debate. Our objective is to analyse changes in the incidence of hip fractures in women in
the Basque Country population and the relationship with osteoporosis treatment.
ObjectiveHip fractures are the most important type of fracture due to the associated high mortality and morbidity. Our objective is
to analyse changes in the incidence of hip fractures in women in the Basque Country population and the relationship with osteoporosis
MethodsAn observational study of hip fracture rates was carried out based on data taken from the Minimum Basic Data Set. Generalised
linear models were used to assess the trends in annual rates of hip fractures for each age group. In addition, the total annual
use of osteoporosis treatments was analysed.
ResultsThe total number of hip fractures increased by 38% from 1994 to 2009. However, the general linear regression models indicated
that the changes in the rates were only statistically significant for the 65- to 74- and 75- to 84-year-old age groups. In
these groups, there were annual decreases by 2.30% (CI 1.00, 3.59) and 1.32% (CI 0.47; 2.18), respectively. The use of osteoporosis
treatments has quadrupled during that time.
ConclusionsThe main finding of our study is that from 1994 to 2008, there is a downwards trend in hip fracture rates in the Basque Country
for the 65- to 84-year-old age bracket. Given the characteristics of the design of this study, we are not able to infer a
relationship between these findings and any specific factor. Nevertheless, the fact that the change has occurred in the age
groups which have received the most treatment for osteoporosis may suggest the existence of some kind of association.
KeywordsAge-adjusted incidence–Epidemiology–Hip fracture–Trend analyses–Osteoporosis–Osteoporosis treatment
Archives of Osteoporosis 12/2010; 5(1):131-137. DOI:10.1007/s11657-010-0046-4
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anorexia nervosa (AN), a condition of severe undernutrition, is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) in adults and adolescents. Whereas adult women with AN have an uncoupling of bone turnover markers with increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation markers, adolescents with AN have decreased bone turnover overall. Possible contributors to low BMD in AN include hypoestrogenism and hypoandrogenism, undernutrition with decreased lean body mass, and hypercortisolemia. IGF-I, a known bone trophic factor, is reduced despite elevated growth hormone (GH) levels, leading to an acquired GH resistant state. Elevated ghrelin and peptide YY levels may also contribute to impaired bone metabolism. Weight recovery is associated with recovery of BMD but this is often partial, and long-term and sustained weight recovery may be necessary before significant improvements are observed. Anti-resorptive therapies have been studied in AN with conflicting results. Oral estrogen does not increase BMD or prevent bone loss in AN. The combination of bone anabolic and anti-resorptive therapy (rhIGF-I with oral estrogen), however, did result in a significant increase in BMD in a study of adult women with AN. A better understanding of the pathophysiology of low BMD in AN, and development of effective therapeutic strategies is critical. This is particularly so for adolescents, who are in the process of accruing peak bone mass, and in whom a failure to attain peak bone mass may occur in AN in addition to loss of established bone.
Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders 07/2006; 7(1-2):91-9. DOI:10.1007/s11154-006-9005-1 · 4.89 Impact Factor
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.