Codman Award Paper: self-efficacy of staff nurses for health promotion counselling of patients at risk for stroke.
ABSTRACT The effect of nurses' confidence to counsel patients at risk of stroke in selected health promotion areas: smoking cessation, exercise and nutrition was examined. Bandura's (1986) self-efficacy and Knowles' adult learning theories provided the theoretical underpinnings for the study. This was a quasi-experimental design in which neuroscience nurses (N = 23) from a quaternary hospital completed questionnaires prior to, immediately after, and 2 months post completion of a self-directed learning manual (SDL). The researcher-designed manual was designed to enhance learning about the risk factors for stroke and the importance of stroke prevention. Along with reflective activities and pre-post test, strategies for counseling high-risk, stroke-prone individuals in the areas of smoking cessation, exercise, and nutrition were also integrated. The Health Promotion Counseling Self-Efficacy Scale (Tresolini, Saluja, and Stritter, 1995), consisting of 10 self-efficacy subscales relating to self-confidence in knowledge and ability to counsel in health promotion areas, was used to capture the nurses' self-report of self-efficacy. Using a 5-point Likert Scale, nurses also rated their amount of agreement or disagreement about health promotion counseling in practice. Overall, self-efficacy levels for both knowledge and counseling increased significantly (p < .01) from pre-to immediately post completion of the manual, and decreased slightly at two-month follow-up. This pattern was evident in all health promotion areas measured except for knowledge in exercise (p = .015). Nurses' attitudes about aspects of health promotion practices correlated significantly (p < 05) at two-month follow-up with all health promotion areas. Results of this study support the usefulness of a self-directed learning manual as a teaching strategy for health promotion counseling of individuals at risk of stroke.