Renal function, concomitant medication use and outcomes following acute coronary syndromes.
ABSTRACT Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. We explored the associations of CKD with outcomes using combined data from two large acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials. We also explored the associations of CKD with prescription patterns for common cardiovascular medications and the association of these prescription patterns with clinical outcomes.
Patients were stratified by CKD stage using creatinine clearance (CrCl, ml/min) estimated by the modified MDRD equation using baseline core laboratory creatinine measures. Serum creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl was an exclusion criterion for the SYMPHONY trials. Baseline characteristics and outcomes across CKD categories were compared and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship of renal insufficiency with clinical outcomes after adjusting for previously identified outcome predictors. Interactions between the use of specific medications and calculated CrCl were tested in the final Cox proportional hazards model predicting time to mortality.
Of 13 707 patients analysed, 6840 had CKD stage I (CrCl > or =90 ml/min), 5909 stage II (CrCl 60-89 ml/min), 955 stage III (CrCl 30-59 ml/min) and three stage IV (CrCl <30 ml/min). Patients with more advanced CKD (III) were older, more often female, non-smokers and more likely to have co-morbid diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular medications were used less frequently in patients with CKD. Unadjusted survival was poorer in patients with CKD stages > or =II. In adjusted analyses, for those with CrCl < or =91, each 10 ml/min increase in CrCl was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (hazards ratio 0.897, 95% confidence interval 0.815-0.986) (P = 0.024). The interaction between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and CrCl was significantly associated with outcomes; the benefit of drug therapy was greater among patients with CKD.
CKD is an independent predictor of risk among ACS patients, and is associated with less frequent use of proven medical therapies. More aggressive use of conventional cardiovascular therapies in patients with CKD and ACS may be warranted.
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ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly associated with cardiovascular disease. After a myocardial infarction (MI), the risk of recurrent events is much higher in subjects suffering from CKD, even when traditional risk factors are taken into account. Some data suggest that thrombolysis and coronary revascularization are underused during acute MI episodes in subjects who suffer from CKD. We performed a systematic review of the medical literature to ascertain whether there is also a CKD-associated decrease in the use of cardioprotective medications (aspirin, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and lipid lowering drugs) after a MI. We did observe a CKD-associated underuse of these medications in this particular clinical context. The presence of co-morbidities and co-treatments, as well as the relative lack of evidence-based data on the efficacy of cardiopreventive drugs in patients with CKD probably explain much of the reported therapeutic differences. However, recent studies show that the differences in cardioprotective drug use across levels of kidney function tend to diminish over the years. This probably reflects a greater awareness of the high cardiovascular risk associated with CKD amongst clinicians caring for these patients.NÃ©phrologie & ThÃ©rapeutique 06/2010; 6(3):162-170. · 0.55 Impact Factor
- Nephrology 01/2014; 19(1). · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this Danish nationwide study was to evaluate the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Upgraded guidelines for the management of MI were implemented around 2004; hence, the treatment of MI in the time periods before and after 2004 was compared in order to evaluate the impact for patients with CKD. By linking nationwide registries by the personal registration number, we identified patients admitted to Danish hospitals with first time MI in the period 2000-09 (79 585 with no renal disease, 3144 with non-end-stage CKD, and 725 requiring RRT). Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the chance of invasive treatment within 60 days after MI and the chance of filling prescriptions on recommended post-MI drugs within 90 days before and after 2004. Significantly less use of relevant MI treatment in patients with non-end-stage CKD and patients requiring RRT compared with patients with no renal disease were seen; however, the absolute frequencies of invasive procedures and filled prescriptions on post-MI drugs increased after 2004 in all patients. After 2004, invasive and pharmacological treatment of first-time MI improved in patients with non-end-stage CKD and patients requiring RRT; however, all CKD patients were less treated with standard MI care compared with patients with no renal disease.European Heart Journal 06/2013; · 14.72 Impact Factor