Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is highly prevalent in patients with cardiovascular disease. We explored the associations of CKD with outcomes using combined data from two large acute coronary syndrome (ACS) trials. We also explored the associations of CKD with prescription patterns for common cardiovascular medications and the association of these prescription patterns with clinical outcomes.
Patients were stratified by CKD stage using creatinine clearance (CrCl, ml/min) estimated by the modified MDRD equation using baseline core laboratory creatinine measures. Serum creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl was an exclusion criterion for the SYMPHONY trials. Baseline characteristics and outcomes across CKD categories were compared and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship of renal insufficiency with clinical outcomes after adjusting for previously identified outcome predictors. Interactions between the use of specific medications and calculated CrCl were tested in the final Cox proportional hazards model predicting time to mortality.
Of 13 707 patients analysed, 6840 had CKD stage I (CrCl > or =90 ml/min), 5909 stage II (CrCl 60-89 ml/min), 955 stage III (CrCl 30-59 ml/min) and three stage IV (CrCl <30 ml/min). Patients with more advanced CKD (III) were older, more often female, non-smokers and more likely to have co-morbid diseases including diabetes mellitus, hypertension and congestive heart failure. Cardiovascular medications were used less frequently in patients with CKD. Unadjusted survival was poorer in patients with CKD stages > or =II. In adjusted analyses, for those with CrCl < or =91, each 10 ml/min increase in CrCl was associated with a significantly decreased risk of mortality (hazards ratio 0.897, 95% confidence interval 0.815-0.986) (P = 0.024). The interaction between use of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and CrCl was significantly associated with outcomes; the benefit of drug therapy was greater among patients with CKD.
CKD is an independent predictor of risk among ACS patients, and is associated with less frequent use of proven medical therapies. More aggressive use of conventional cardiovascular therapies in patients with CKD and ACS may be warranted.
"Observational studies have shown that despite being at high risk for CHD, many patients with CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD) are less likely to receive cardiovascular medications [6-8]. One study found that among the 35.5% of CKD patients not taking an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, over half did not have clear contraindications to ACE inhibitor use . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are less likely to receive cardiovascular medications. It is unclear whether differential cardiovascular drug use explains, in part, the excess risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with CKD and coronary heart disease (CHD).
The ADVANCE Study enrolled patients with new onset CHD (2001-2003) who did (N = 159) or did not have (N = 1088) CKD at entry. The MDRD equation was used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using calibrated serum creatinine measurements. Patient characteristics, medication use, cardiovascular events and death were ascertained from self-report and health plan electronic databases through December 2008.
Post-CHD event ACE inhibitor use was lower (medication possession ratio 0.50 vs. 0.58, P = 0.03) and calcium channel blocker use higher (0.47 vs. 0.38, P = 0.06) in CKD vs. non-CKD patients, respectively. Incidence of cardiovascular events and death was higher in CKD vs. non-CKD patients (13.9 vs. 11.5 per 100 person-years, P < 0.001, respectively). After adjustment for patient characteristics, the rate of cardiovascular events and death was increased for eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.47, 95% CI: 1.10 to 2.02) and eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.00 to 2.50). After further adjustment for statins, β-blocker, calcium channel blocker, ACE inhibitor/ARB use, the association was no longer significant for eGFR 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 0.82, 95% CI: 0.25 to 2.66) or for eGFR < 45 ml/min/1.73 m2 (HR 1.19, 95% CI: 0.25 to 5.58).
In adults with CHD, differential use of cardiovascular medications may contribute to the higher risk of cardiovascular events and death in patients with CKD.
"Erythropoietin was prescribed to our CKD patients due to renal anemia. Some studies reported that CKD patients with CAD showed a tendency for aspirin, β-blockers and statins to be underused, probably due to concerns about limited efficacy and toxic effects in renal dysfunction (26, 27). However, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and β-blockers were more frequently prescribed in our CKD patients, so we can at least exclude the possibility of worse clinical outcomes in CKD due to inadequate use of medications. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To characterize the association between chronic kidney disease (CKD), mortality, severity of coronary artery disease (CAD), treatment modality of CAD, and type of coronary stents among patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), we retrospectively reviewed the electronic medical records of the patients who underwent CAG at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in Korea between May 2003 and January 2006. CKD was staged using an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from the creatinine value prior to CAG. There were 3,637 patients included. The presence of CAD was 48% in CKD stage 1, 61% in stage 2, 73% in stage 3, 87% in stage 4, and 81% in stage 5. Survival rate gradually diminished for patients with decreasing renal function. No significant differences in all-cause and cardiac mortality were observed by medical treatment, PCI or CABG, in CKD patients with an eGFR less than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). CKD patients with drug-eluting stents showed significantly lower all-cause mortality (5.4% vs. 13.3%) and incidence of myocardial infarction (1.7% vs. 10%) than those with bare metal stents. In conclusion, an eGFR is a strong independent prognostic marker among patients undergoing CAG and the severity of CAD increases progressively with worsening renal function.
Journal of Korean Medical Science 02/2009; 24 Suppl(Suppl 1):S87-94. DOI:10.3346/jkms.2009.24.S1.S87 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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