Chrysanthemum indicum Linné (CI) has a long history for the treatment of inflammation, hypertension and respiratory diseases in China. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of the inflorescence or bud of CI extracts. The ethanol extract of CI (CIEE) was fractionated to a petroleum ether soluble fraction (CIPF), an ethyl acetate soluble fraction (CIEF), a butanol soluble fraction (CIBF) and a water soluble fraction (CIWF) successively. CIBF (150 mg/kg, p.o.) caused a significant inhibition on the auricle edema in mice. CIBF (150, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) not only significantly increased the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction induced by 2,4-dinitro-fluorobenzene (DNFB) but also significantly enhanced antibody generation by splenic cells of mice and IgG and IgM levels in mice sera in response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced mice. Furthermore, CIBF (150, 300 mg/kg, p.o.) obviously potentiated the function of the mononuclear phagocytic system in CP-induced mice. The above results reveal that CIBF possesses anti-inflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory and mononuclear phagocytic activities, probably due to the presence of flavonoids.
"For example, C. morifolium, which is widely used in China as a dietary supplement  , has been shown to exhibit antihepatotoxic and antigenotoxic effects . In addition, C. indicum, a traditional herb that is widely used in Korea and Japan, has been found to possess anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, humoral and cellular , and mononuclear phagocytic activities  . Also, the flowers of C. cinerariaefolium and C. macrotum were proven to have insecticidal and herbicide activities  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The essential oil of the Jordanian
L. (garland) was isolated by hydrodistillation from dried flowerheads material. The oil was essayed for its
scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. The results demonstrate that the oil exhibits moderate radical scavenging activity relative to the strong antioxidant ascorbic acid. In addition, cholinesterase inhibitory activity of
essential oil was evaluated for the first time. Applying Ellman’s colorimetric method, interesting cholinesterase inhibitory activity, which is not dose dependent, was evident for the oil. Furthermore, antimicrobial activities of the oil against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria were evaluated. While it fails to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria growth, the antibacterial effects demonstrated by the oil were more pronounced against the Gram-positive strains. Moreover, the examined oil was assessed for its
antiproliferative properties where it demonstrated variable activities towards different human cancer cell lines, of which the colon cancer was the most sensitive to the oil treatment.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2015; 2015(Article ID 790838):1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/790838 · 1.88 Impact Factor
"Although the evidence of risk in longer use is unknown, but the acute toxic results sufficiently support the fact that BtOH and EtOAc fractions of NAF have no toxicity. Xylene-induced ear edema in mice is a preliminary and simple acute inflammation model for evaluating potential antiinflammatory agents (Cheng et al., 2005). Ear edema may involve inflammatory mediators such as histamine, kinin, fibrinolysin, phospholipase A2 and PLA2. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aconitum flavum Hand.-Mazz., Ranunculaceae, has been used for the treatment of rheumatism, traumatic injury in folk and clinical medicine, but the alkaloids has high toxicity. This study was designed to investigate the acute toxicity, anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of non-alkaloids fractions from A. flavum in rodents. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by inflammatory models of dimethylbenzene-induced ear vasodilatation and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability enhancement test in mice and carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats whereas the antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid-induced writhes, hot plate test and formalin test in mice. The result showed that the LD50 value of BtOH and EtOAc fractions could not be determined as no lethality was observed up to 40 g/kg (p.o.) in mice. BtOH fraction significantly decreased the dimethylbenzene-induced ear vasodilatation, carrageenan-induced paw edema and acetic acid-induced capillary permeability. EtOAc fraction only significantly attenuated paw edema and capillary permeability at the dose of 500 mg/kg. In antinociceptive test, BtOH and EtOAc fractions significantly reduced the writhing number evoked by acetic acid injection and the licking time in both phases of the formalin test. Meanwhile BtOH and EtOAc fractions had significant effect on hot plate test after 90 min. Our data indicate that the BtOH and EtOAc fractions of NAF are no toxicity. BtOH and EtOAc fractions not only inhibit inflammatory and peripheral inflammatory pain but also have central antinociceptive effect.
Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia 02/2015; 17(1). DOI:10.1016/j.bjp.2014.11.013 · 0.83 Impact Factor
"Chrysanthemum indicum Linnén (C. indicum) is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has been used to treat various inflammation-related diseases with high efficacy and low toxicity for several centuries  . Modern pharmacological researches demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of C. indicum decreased inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide-(LPS-) induced RAW 264.7 cells by suppressing nuclear factor kappa B-(NF-í µí¼ B-) dependent pathways  and attenuated mouse contact dermatitis through blocking synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, such as "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze the chemical composition and investigate the anti-inflammatory property of the supercritical-carbon dioxide extract from flowers and buds of C. indicum (CISCFE). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated in four animal models including xylene-induced mouse ear edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability, carrageenan-induced mouse hind paw edema, and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma formation. The results indicated that CISCFE significantly attenuated xylene-induced ear edema, decreased acetic acid-induced capillary permeability, reduced carrageenan-induced paw, and inhibited the cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathologically, CISCFE abated inflammatory response of the edema paw. Preliminary mechanistic studies demonstrated that CISCFE decreased the MDA level via increasing the activities of anti-oxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx, and GRd), attenuated the productions of NF- κ B, TNF- α , IL-1 β , IL-6, PGE2 and NO, and suppressed the activities of iNOS and COX-2. In phytochemical study, 35 compounds were identified by GC-MS, and 5 compounds (chlorogenic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, linarin, luteolin and acacetin) were reconfirmed and quantitatively determined by HPLC-PAD. This paper firstly analyzed the chemical composition by combining GC-MS with HPLC-PAD and explored possible mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory effect of CISCFE.
Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 10/2013; 2013(3):413237. DOI:10.1155/2013/413237 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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