Systemic IFN-beta treatment induces apoptosis of peripheral immune cells in MS patients.
ABSTRACT In multiple sclerosis (MS), an impaired apoptotic deletion of activated CNS-specific immune cells, leading to their pathogenic persistence, has been suggested to maintain chronic brain inflammation. We here investigated whether interferon-beta (IFN-beta) therapy induces apoptosis of peripheral immune cells. Serial blood samples from 127 relapsing-remitting MS patients were analyzed prior to the initiation of a weekly IFN-beta 1a therapy and 4, 26, and 52 weeks thereafter. Peripheral immune cells were investigated for apoptosis and for the expression of apoptosis-regulatory genes CD95, CD95 ligand, FLIP, Bcl-2, Bcl-X(L), Bag-1, and caspase 3 by quantitative real-time PCR. Biological efficacy of IFN-beta treatment was checked by quantification of Mx expression (ELISA and real-time PCR). We found a significant increase in the apoptosis rate of immune cells in response to IFN-beta treatment, compared to baseline levels. While Bcl-2 levels were permanently and Bag-1 levels transiently elevated upon therapy, other apoptosis-regulatory genes revealed no alterations. Upregulation of Mx expression confirmed the activity of IFN-beta in vivo. These findings indicate that immunomodulatory IFN-beta therapy involves the induction of apoptotic cell death with the observed RNA upregulation of Bcl-2 family members rather reflecting a possible compensatory mechanism. The increased apoptosis susceptibility of peripheral immune cells may contribute to the known reduction of brain inflammatory lesions during IFN-beta treatment.
SourceAvailable from: Stefanie Scheu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) leading to progressive neurological disability. Interferon β (IFNβ) represents a standard treatment for relapsing-remitting MS and exogenous administration of IFNβ exhibits protective effects in experimentally induced CNS autoimmunity. Also, genetic deletion of IFNβ in mice leads to an aggravation of disease symptoms in the MS model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, neither the underlying mechanisms mediating the beneficial effects nor the cellular source of IFNβ have been fully elucidated. In this report, a subpopulation of activated microglia was identified as the major producers of IFNβ in the CNS at the peak of EAE using an IFNβ-fluorescence reporter mouse model. These IFNβ expressing microglia specifically localized to active CNS lesions and were associated with myelin debris in demyelinated cerebellar organotypic slice cultures (OSCs). In response to IFNβ microglia showed an enhanced capacity to phagocytose myelin in vitro and up-regulated the expression of phagocytosis-associated genes. IFNβ treatment was further sufficient to stimulate association of microglia with myelin debris in OSCs. Moreover, IFNβ-producing microglia mediated an enhanced removal of myelin debris when co-transplanted onto demyelinated OSCs as compared to IFNβ non-producing microglia. These data identify activated microglia as the major producers of protective IFNβ at the peak of EAE and as orchestrators of IFNβ-induced clearance of myelin debris.01/2015; 3(1):20. DOI:10.1186/s40478-015-0192-4
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis is a clinically heterogeneous autoimmune disease leading to severe neurological disability. Although during the last years many disease-modifying agents as treatment options for multiple sclerosis have been made available, their mechanisms of action are still not fully determined. In the present study radiosensitivity in lymphocytes of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and healthy controls was investigated. Whole blood cultures from multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls were used to analyse the spontaneous and radiation-induced micronuclei in binucleated lymphocytes. A subgroup of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis was treated with immunomodulatory agents, interferon β or glatiramer acetate. The secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients group was not receiving any treatment. Our results reveal that the basal DNA damage was not different between relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls. No differences between gamma-irradiation induced micronuclei frequencies in binucleated cells from relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis patients, and healthy controls were found either. Nevertheless, when we compared the radiation induced DNA damage in binucleated cells from healthy individuals with the whole group of patients, a reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was obtained in the patients group. Induced micronuclei yield was significantly lower in the irradiated samples from treated relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients than in healthy controls and relapsing-remitting not treated patients. Intrinsic sensitivity of lymphocytes subpopulations to the apoptotic effect of immunomodulatory treatment could be responsible for this result.Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 08/2013; 749(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2013.08.004 · 4.44 Impact Factor