Resistance pattern and assessment of phenicol agents' minimum inhibitory concentration in multiple drug resistant Chryseobacterium isolates from fish and aquatic habitats.
ABSTRACT To assess the susceptibility of Chryseobacterium isolates of fish and aquatic habitats to antimicrobial compounds. Special attention was paid to the resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol, a phenicol derivative recently licensed for use in veterinary medicine and fish farming.
Sixty-seven Chryseobacterium spp. isolates and reference strains, originating mainly from different aquatic habitats, were tested using the disk-diffusion method. In addition, agar dilution was used for assessing minimum inhibitory concentration of chloramphenicol and florfenicol. In spite of (i) conditions that hampered properly standardized experiments and (ii) the heterogeneity of the isolates resulting in some aberrant values in diffusion, correlation between the two methods was confirmed. Most of the isolates exhibited considerable multiresistance to most antimicrobial drug families, and many were clearly resistant to phenicols. Molecular investigations conducted on 10 strains selected for high resistance to florfenicol did not establish the existence of floR or cmlA genes currently reported in the literature as responsible for florfenicol resistance. Nevertheless, when an efflux pump inhibitor, phenyl-arginin-beta-naphthylamide, was combined with diffusion tests, drug susceptibility to florfenicol was restored, suggesting that Chryseobacterium's resistance to this molecule is under the control of efflux mechanisms.
Constitutive multiresistance to antibiotics is common in chryseobacteria isolated from the aquatic environment. Although no gene related to the floR family could be detected, efflux mechanisms could partly support the resistance to phenicols.
These results explain the difficulty of treatment and clearly reflect the properties previously reported in Chryseobacterium isolates of human origin. Because several species have been involved in opportunistic infections in humans, the possible role of aquatic organisms as a source of infection should be considered.
Article: Lettuce for human consumption collected in Costa Rica contains complex communities of culturable oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The present widespread use of antimicrobials in crop farming is based upon their successful application in human medicine. However, recent evidence suggests that the massive anthropogenic release of antimicrobials into the biosphere has selected for resistant bacteria and facilitated the transfer of resistance genes among them. This work deals with the examination of iceberg lettuce collected at 10 farms from two regions in Costa Rica. Farmers from nine sampling sites regularly apply commercial formulations containing gentamicin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, or a combination of them without being able to indicate how often and how much of these products have been sprayed onto the crops. One organic farm was also investigated for comparative purposes. Oxytetracycline- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria were abundantly detected using selective enrichment cultures. Furthermore, colony mixtures from selective plates were characterized by chemotaxonomical and molecular fingerprinting methods. Both types of resistant communities accounted for a significant fraction of all culturable bacteria and included several resistance genes as well as factors for their potential horizontal transfer. Given the fact that lettuce is eaten raw, it may contribute to the dissemination of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria and/or their resistance genes from the environment to the microbial biota of the human intestine.Applied and Environmental Microbiology 10/2006; 72(9):5870-6. · 3.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, the mechanism conferring multiple drug resistance in several strains of flavobacteria isolated from the ovarian fluids of hatchery reared 3-year old brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis was investigated. Metabolic fingerprinting and 16S rRNA gene sequences identified the isolates as Flavobacterium johnsoniae. The isolates exhibited multiple resistances to a wide range of antimicrobial classes including penicillin, cephem, monobactam, aminoglycoside, and phenicol. Although plasmids and other transposable elements containing antimicrobial resistance genes were not detected, the isolates did contain a genomic sequence for a chloramphenicol-inducible resistance-nodulation-division family multidrug efflux pump system. Efflux pumps are non-specific multidrug efflux systems. They are also a component of cell-cell communication systems, and respond specifically to cell membrane stressors such as oxidative or nitrosative stress. Understanding of efflux pump mediated antibiotic resistances will affect efficacy of clinical treatments of fishes associated with F. johnsoniae epizootics.Veterinary Research 07/2009; 40(6):55. · 4.06 Impact Factor