Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt

National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 09/2005; 42(3):683-7. DOI: 10.1002/hep.20811
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors were prospectively assessed in a cohort of 6,734 Egyptians from 2 rural villages who were negative for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Initial and follow-up sera were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and possible incident cases were confirmed by using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and tested for HCV RNA. All follow-up serum samples converting from negative to positive without detectable HCV-RNA were further tested by recombinant immunoblot assay. Over an average of 1.6 years, asymptomatic anti-HCV seroconversion occurred in 33 people (3.1/1,000 person-years [PY]), including 28 (6.8/1,000 PY) in the Nile Delta village (AES), where prevalence was 24% and 5 (0.8/1,000 PY) in the Upper Egypt village (baseline prevalence of 9%). The strongest predictor of incident HCV was having an anti-HCV-positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1,000 PY, compared (P < .001) with 1.0/1,000 PY; 27 of 33 incident cases had an anti-HCV-positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV but were not statistically significant; 67% of seroconverters were younger than 20 years of age, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1,000 PY) was in children younger than 10 who were living in AES households with an anti-HCV-positive parent. In conclusion, young children would especially benefit from measures reducing exposures or preventing infection with HCV.

Download full-text


Available from: Mohamed Abdel-Hamid, Oct 10, 2014
1 Follower
  • Source
    • "The total number of HCV infections reported here will be lower than those reported elsewhere since this analysis focuses on estimating the number of viraemic cases in the population after taking into account all age groups, mortality, new infections and cured patients. There is still evidence of high levels of ongoing HCV transmission [20] [21] [22] [23] with high HCV prevalence observed among young individuals [24] [25]. Table 1 shows that an estimated 168,000 new infections occurred in 2013, of which 102,000 went on to have chronic hepatitis C (CHC). "
    Arab Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2014; 15(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ajg.2014.04.003
  • Source
    • "This elevated risk of incident of HCV of family members could be due to sharing of implements such as razors or toothbrushes or due to sexual transmission between family members [14] [15]. Alternatively, the elevated risk may be due to shared risk factors (such as the family members all attending a particular health practitioner) rather than being caused by direct transmission between family members [13]. To disentangle these relationships it would be useful to know how HCV is patterned within families. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective. To identify the risk factors for HCV infection within married couples in Egypt. Methods. In 2008 Egypt conducted its first nationally representative survey of HCV prevalence. 11126 of the 12780 individuals aged 15-59 year who were sampled agreed to participate and provided information via a questionnaire about demographic and behavioural characteristics and blood for HCV antibody and RNA analysis. We assessed the risk factors for HCV infection in a subsample of 5182 married individuals via multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall HCV antibody prevalence in the married couples was 18.2% (95% CI, 16.8-19.6). HCV antibody prevalence was higher in the husbands (23.7%) than the wives (12.1%; P < 0.001). Having a spouse who was infected with HCV was an independent risk factor for HCV infection with odds ratios of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.6-2.9) and 2.2 (95% CI, 1.6-3.1) for women and men, respectively. Husbands whose wives had experienced female genital cutting (FGC) had a higher prevalence of HCV and this relationship was driven by a strong association in urban areas. Amongst the women there was no association between FGC and HCV overall but in urban areas only women who had experienced FGC were HCV infected. Conclusions. This study provides additional evidence of the importance of intrafamilial transmission of HCV in Egypt.
    03/2014; 2014:164357. DOI:10.1155/2014/164357
  • Source
    • "Similar results supporting the low effectiveness of horizontal intrafamilial transmission of HCV were obtained by different authors in well-designed controlled studies with careful subgroup analyses, which focused on the exclusion of previous parenteral exposure in households of the index cases [La Torre et al., 2006; Minola et al., 2006; Indolfi et al., 2008; Paez Jimenez et al., 2010]. Recently, the epidemiological risk of transmission of HCV was analyzed in 2,856 consecutive Italian patients infected with HCV and 14,148 members of their families, showing a low/ negligible risk of HCV infection in members of the family. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HCV infection is a major public health problem worldwide. Several studies reported that HCV infection might cluster in families or households. Horizontal intrafamilial transmission of the virus has been demonstrated previously. Whether horizontal transmission makes any significant contribution to the global burden of HCV infection is still controversial and data about epidemiology and routes of transmission are uncertain. The certain diagnosis of horizontal intrafamilial transmission of HCV is based on the simultaneous presence of specific laboratory criteria, the temporal association between intrafamilial exposure and infection and the exclusion of all the potential extrafamilial routes of transmission of the infection. This review summarizes the current knowledge of epidemiology, risk factors and molecular biology of horizontal intrafamilial transmission of HCV infection. J. Med. Virol. 85:608-614, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Medical Virology 04/2013; 85(4):608-14. DOI:10.1002/jmv.23522 · 2.22 Impact Factor
Show more