Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt.

National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 09/2005; 42(3):683-7. DOI: 10.1002/hep.20811
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors were prospectively assessed in a cohort of 6,734 Egyptians from 2 rural villages who were negative for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Initial and follow-up sera were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and possible incident cases were confirmed by using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and tested for HCV RNA. All follow-up serum samples converting from negative to positive without detectable HCV-RNA were further tested by recombinant immunoblot assay. Over an average of 1.6 years, asymptomatic anti-HCV seroconversion occurred in 33 people (3.1/1,000 person-years [PY]), including 28 (6.8/1,000 PY) in the Nile Delta village (AES), where prevalence was 24% and 5 (0.8/1,000 PY) in the Upper Egypt village (baseline prevalence of 9%). The strongest predictor of incident HCV was having an anti-HCV-positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1,000 PY, compared (P < .001) with 1.0/1,000 PY; 27 of 33 incident cases had an anti-HCV-positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV but were not statistically significant; 67% of seroconverters were younger than 20 years of age, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1,000 PY) was in children younger than 10 who were living in AES households with an anti-HCV-positive parent. In conclusion, young children would especially benefit from measures reducing exposures or preventing infection with HCV.

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    ABSTRACT: Despite having the highest hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence in the world, the ongoing level of HCV incidence in Egypt and its drivers are poorly understood. Whereas HCV mother‐to‐child infection is a well‐established transmission route, there are no estimates of HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission for any country, including Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the absolute number of new HCV infections resulting from vertical transmission in Egypt. We developed a conceptual framework of HCV vertical transmission, expressed in terms of a mathematical model and based on maternal HCV antibody and viremia. The mathematical model estimated the number of HCV vertical infections nationally and for six subnational areas. Applying two vertical transmission risk estimates to the 2008 Egyptian birth cohort, we estimated that between 3,080 and 5,167 HCV infections resulted from vertical transmission among children born in 2008. HCV vertical transmission may account for half of incident cases in the Conclusion: Vertical transmission is one of the primary HCV infection routes among children Document Type: Research Article DOI: Publication date: March 1, 2015 $(document).ready(function() { var shortdescription = $(".originaldescription").text().replace(/\\&/g, '&').replace(/\\, '<').replace(/\\>/g, '>').replace(/\\t/g, ' ').replace(/\\n/g, ''); if (shortdescription.length > 350){ shortdescription = "" + shortdescription.substring(0,250) + "... more"; } $(".descriptionitem").prepend(shortdescription); $(".shortdescription a").click(function() { $(".shortdescription").hide(); $(".originaldescription").slideDown(); return false; }); }); Related content In this: publication By this: publisher By this author: Benova, Lenka ; Awad, Susanne F. ; Miller, F. DeWolfe ; Abu‐Raddad, Laith J. GA_googleFillSlot("Horizontal_banner_bottom");
    Hepatology 11/2014; 61(3). DOI:10.1002/hep.27596 · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus constitutes an epidemic in Egypt having the highest prevalence in the world of 14.7%. The reasons behind this unique epidemic may be dated back to iatrogenic role of parenteral antischistosomal therapy campaigns to control endemic schistosomiasis. Other routes of infection are contributing to the ongoing HCV transmission. The prevalent genotype in Egypt is type 4 (73%), the origin, evolution, and dynamics are difficult to determine. Risk factors for acquiring HCV infection include: History of antischistosomal injection treatment before 1986, old age, male gender, and residence in rural areas. Other risk factors include; injection therapy, blood transfusion prior to 1994, exposure to various facility-based medical procedures, and occupational transmission among health care workers. In community settings, a set of risk factors, mostly related to prevailing social and cultural conditions, are responsible for maintaining the high rates of HCV transmission. Chronic HCV is the main cause of liver cirrhosis and liver cancer in Egypt and, indeed, one of the top five leading causes of death. It kills an estimated 40,000 Egyptians a year. Mini-review Article Amer et al.; IJTDH, 7(3): 119-131, 2015; Article no.IJTDH.2015.065 120 When talking about children, current HCV seroprevalenceis high, approximately 5-8%. It is to be emphasized that HCV infection is not always benign in the childhood period in Egypt. It has been shown that blood transfusion, surgical procedures, dental treatment, male circumcision and age above 10 years are important risk factors associated with anti-HCV antibody prevalence. In addition, vertical transmissions, and household transmission have been documented as routes of transmission. Occult HCV infection is defined as elevated liver function tests and negative HCV antibodies in serum, while HCV RNA is detectable in liver tissue and peripheral polymorphonuclear cells (PBMCs). Interest in occult HCV has emerged recently in Egypt. Studies at a national level are being carried out, but no results have yet been released. Many small scale studies have been performed among particular patient groups, which have highlighted the importance of this disease entity.
  • Journal of Hepatology 04/2014; 60(1):S472. DOI:10.1016/S0168-8278(14)61324-6 · 10.40 Impact Factor