Intrafamilial transmission of hepatitis C in Egypt.

National Hepatology & Tropical Medicine Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 12). 09/2005; 42(3):683-7. DOI: 10.1002/hep.20811
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The incidence of hepatitis C (HCV) infection and associated risk factors were prospectively assessed in a cohort of 6,734 Egyptians from 2 rural villages who were negative for antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV). Initial and follow-up sera were tested for anti-HCV by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and possible incident cases were confirmed by using the microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA) and tested for HCV RNA. All follow-up serum samples converting from negative to positive without detectable HCV-RNA were further tested by recombinant immunoblot assay. Over an average of 1.6 years, asymptomatic anti-HCV seroconversion occurred in 33 people (3.1/1,000 person-years [PY]), including 28 (6.8/1,000 PY) in the Nile Delta village (AES), where prevalence was 24% and 5 (0.8/1,000 PY) in the Upper Egypt village (baseline prevalence of 9%). The strongest predictor of incident HCV was having an anti-HCV-positive family member. Among those that did, incidence was 5.8/1,000 PY, compared (P < .001) with 1.0/1,000 PY; 27 of 33 incident cases had an anti-HCV-positive family member. Parenteral exposures increased the risk of HCV but were not statistically significant; 67% of seroconverters were younger than 20 years of age, and the highest incidence rate (14.1/1,000 PY) was in children younger than 10 who were living in AES households with an anti-HCV-positive parent. In conclusion, young children would especially benefit from measures reducing exposures or preventing infection with HCV.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We propose a new approach based on genetic distances among viral strains to infer about risk exposures and location of transmission at population level. We re-analysed 133 viral sequences obtained during a cross-sectional survey of 4020 subjects living in a hepatitis C virus (HCV) endemic area in 2002. A permutation test was used to analyze the correlation between matrices of genetic distances in the NS5b region of all pairwise combinations of the 133 viral strains and exposure status (jointly exposed or not) to several potential HCV risk factors. Compared to subjects who did not share the same characteristics or iatrogenic exposures, the median Kimura genetic distances of viral strains were significantly smaller between brothers and sisters (0.031 versus 0.102, P<0.001), mother and child (0.044 versus 0.102, P<0.001), father and child (0.045 versus 0.102, P<0.001), or subjects exposed to periodontal treatment (0.084 versus 0.102, P = 0.02). Conversely, viral strains were more divergent between subjects exposed to blood transfusions (0.216 versus 0.102, P = 0.04) or tooth filling or extraction (0.108, versus 0.097, P = 0.05), suggesting acquisition of the virus outside of the village. This method provided insights on where infection took place (household, village) for several socio-demographic characteristics or iatrogenic procedures, information of great relevance for targeting prevention interventions. This method may have interesting applications for virologists and epidemiologists studying transmission networks in health-care facilities or among intravenous drug users.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86098. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most fatal types of malignancy, is increasing worldwide, and particularly in Egypt where there is a confluence of its contributing factors, including high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, widespread use of pesticides, and diets that are contaminated by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rural areas. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, and prevention practices related to HCV infection and pesticides use in rural Egypt, where over half of the population resides and agriculture is the predominant occupation.
    BMC Public Health 05/2014; 14(1):501. · 2.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a leading indicator for liver disease. New treatment options are becoming available, and there is a need to characterize the epidemiology and disease burden of HCV. Data for prevalence, viremia, genotype, diagnosis and treatment were obtained through literature searches and expert consensus for 16 countries. For some countries, data from centralized registries were used to estimate diagnosis and treatment rates. Data for the number of liver transplants and the proportion attributable to HCV were obtained from centralized databases. Viremic prevalence estimates varied widely between countries, ranging from 0.3% in Austria, England and Germany to 8.5% in Egypt. The largest viremic populations were in Egypt, with 6 358 000 cases in 2008 and Brazil with 2 106 000 cases in 2007. The age distribution of cases differed between countries. In most countries, prevalence rates were higher among males, reflecting higher rates of injection drug use. Diagnosis, treatment and transplant levels also differed considerably between countries. Reliable estimates characterizing HCV-infected populations are critical for addressing HCV-related morbidity and mortality. There is a need to quantify the burden of chronic HCV infection at the national level.
    Journal of Viral Hepatitis 05/2014; 21 Suppl 1:5-33. · 3.08 Impact Factor