Cost-Effectiveness of Type 2 Diabetes Screening: Results from Recently Published Studies
Leibniz Institute at Heinrich Heine University, Institute of Biometrics and Epidemiology, German Diabetes Center, Düsseldorf, Germany.Das Gesundheitswesen (Impact Factor: 0.62). 09/2005; 67 Suppl 1(S 01):S167-71. DOI: 10.1055/s-2005-858232
Type 2 diabetes screening is recommended by various international diabetes associations. We conducted a literature research to identify and describe systematically recently published cost effectiveness analyses (CEA) for type 2 diabetes screening. Three analyses were included. One of them was conducted in Germany, based on the data of the KORA survey S4 (1999/2001). Two studies came from the US. The German as well as one of the US studies evaluated cost per detected diabetic case as main outcome. In contrast to the US study, the German study considered incomplete participation in the screening programs as baseline case. HbA1 c testing combined with the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was more expensive than OGTT or fasting glucose testing, but also most effective in detecting cases, due to high participation in this screening strategy. The second US study investigated the lifetime cost effectiveness of type 2 diabetes screening, based on a Markov model to calculate cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Effectiveness data were derived from two large intervention studies in clinically diagnosed (not identified by screening) diabetic subjects. The authors conclude that type 2 diabetes screening is cost effective, in particular targeted screening in elderly hypertensive subjects. Diabetes screening may be cost effective. However, the effectiveness of early detection and treatment of type 2 diabetes has not yet been shown, and data regarding the course of early detected diabetes are lacking so far. In the future, the most important question is whether type 2 diabetes screening and early treatment is effective with respect to clinical outcomes.
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ABSTRACT: The KORA studies serve as a powerful tool for the genetic analysis of complex diseases like type 2 diabetes or the metabolic syndrome. These studies include more than 2,000 prevalent and incident type 2 diabetes cases. DNA of these patients is available to be used in genetic studies. Up to now the analyses have focussed on genes coding for proteins being involved in the inflammatory response. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) as the key mediator of the acute phase reaction is of interest. Elevated protein concentrations of IL-6 in the blood have been shown to predict type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of the IL-6 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C-174G with type 2 diabetes in a case-control study of 704 elderly participants of the KORA Survey S4 (1999/2001). When BMI, HDL cholesterol, physical activity, hypertension, hormone replacement therapy and smoking were considered as covariables the SNP C-174G showed a trend for association with type 2 diabetes (- 174G: OR 1.20, 95 % CI 0.90 - 1.59, p = 0.21).Das Gesundheitswesen 09/2005; 67 Suppl 1:S122-6. DOI:10.1055/s-2005-858396 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Valid epidemiologic data on type 2 diabetes in the elderly population are scarce in the European Region despite its enormous human and economic burden. The aim was to assess population-based data on type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) from surveys carried out in Western Europe since 1990 using oral glucose tolerance tests, and to discuss the possible impact of risk factors on geographic variation, in particular, obesity and physical activity. In the decade below 60 years of age, about 10 % of the population had known or newly diagnosed diabetes in European surveys. In the age group 70 to 79 years, average total diabetes prevalence was about one quarter. IGR prevalences also increased with age, reaching a maximum of 25 % (men) to 30 % (women) above 70 years of age. There was a wide variation of total diabetes prevalence in the elderly population in Western European countries, however, without clear geographical pattern. Whereas age- and sex-specific prevalences for total diabetes in the German KORA Survey S4 (1999/2001) (Augsburg) were comparable to the European average, IGR prevalences were higher in Augsburg (60-69 years: KORA: men: 30.2 %, women: 22.4 % Europe: men: 21.2 %, women: 19.0 %). Thus, there is a huge reservoir for future diabetes cases in the elderly population in Germany. Differences at the population level were found for obesity, nutrition, and sedentary lifestyle in Western Europe. Comparative studies on the predictive values of obesity, physical activity, and nutrition and possible interactions with genetic markers in European populations are of interest in the future.Das Gesundheitswesen 09/2005; 67 Suppl 1(S 01):S110-4. DOI:10.1055/s-2005-858227 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since 1996, all citizens of the Federal Republic of Germany who are insured in the statutory health insurance system are entitled to switch their sickness fund. The rationale of this regulation was to strengthen elements of competition in this system in order to stimulate the sickness funds to improve the efficiency of health care and to respond to consumers' preferences. Simultaneously, to avoid the implicit incentives for sickness funds to engage in risk selection, a risk compensation mechanism was introduced, including as morbidity-related risk adjusters age, sex and incapacity to work. Based on the KORA survey S4 (1999/2001) we take the case of switching behaviour in the region of Augsburg, and analyse whether this risk adjustment scheme was working effectively. The results show that persons changing their sickness fund were characterised by a comparatively smaller burden of chronic diseases and by a less frequent utilization of inpatient health care. Under these conditions, differences in the contribution rates do not accurately reflect differences in the performance and efficiency of sickness funds. Moreover, the migration of good risk to sickness funds with favourable contribution rates threatens the principle of financial solidarity. Therefore, the system of risk equalisation has to be developed towards measuring the risk volume borne by the sickness funds more precisely than hitherto.Das Gesundheitswesen 09/2005; 67 Suppl 1:S158-66. DOI:10.1055/s-2005-858261 · 0.62 Impact Factor
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