Clear cell renal cell carcinoma: Gene expression analyses identify a potential signature for tumor aggressiveness
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to use gene expression profiling to identify novel biomarkers that are predictive of aggressive behavior in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC).
Candidate genes were discovered using Human Genome U133 Plus 2 Arrays and validated on independent samples by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Both the discovery and the validation cohorts included nonaggressive primary CCRCC, aggressive primary CCRCC, metastatic CCRCC, and nonneoplastic kidney adjacent to tumor.
Aggressive primary and metastatic CCRCC displayed no significant differences in gene expression. In contrast, we identified significant differences in gene expression between nonaggressive and aggressive CCRCC (including metastatic CCRCC). Thirty-four of the 35 transcripts that displayed the most significant differential expression by microarray analysis also displayed significant differential expression in independent validation studies using quantitative RT-PCR (P < 0.001 for 31 candidates and P < 0.005 for the remaining three candidates). Hierarchical clustering of the quantitative RT-PCR data using our candidate markers accurately grouped 88% (23 of 26) of aggressive and metastatic CCRCC samples, 100% (14 of 14) of nonaggressive CCRCC samples, and 100% (15 of 15) of nonneoplastic samples into separate clusters. Finally, we evaluated the ability of protein expression levels of one of our candidate markers (survivin) to predict survival among a cohort of 183 CCRCC patients treated surgically at Mayo Clinic from 1990 to 1992. In multivariate analysis, expression of survivin (BIRC5) was inversely associated with cancer-specific survival (P = 0.017).
We used a combination of genomic profiling and validation by quantitative PCR to identify a panel of candidate biomarkers for determining CCRCC aggressiveness. Our data also indicate that the gene expression alterations that result in aggressive behavior and metastatic potential can be identified in the primary tumor.
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ABSTRACT: Background Candidate biomarkers have been identified for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients, but most have not been validated. Objective To validate published ccRCC prognostic biomarkers in an independent patient cohort and to assess intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) of the most promising markers to guide biomarker optimisation. Design, setting, and participants Cancer-specific survival (CSS) for each of 28 identified genetic or transcriptomic biomarkers was assessed in 350 ccRCC patients. ITH was interrogated in a multiregion biopsy data set of 10 ccRCCs. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Biomarker association with CSS was analysed by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results and limitations A total of 17 of 28 biomarkers (TP53 mutations; amplifications of chromosomes 8q, 12, 20q11.21q13.32, and 20 and deletions of 4p, 9p, 9p21.3p24.1, and 22q; low EDNRB and TSPAN7 expression and six gene expression signatures) were validated as predictors of poor CSS in univariate analysis. Tumour stage and the ccB expression signature were the only independent predictors in multivariate analysis. ITH of the ccB signature was identified in 8 of 10 tumours. Several genetic alterations that were significant in univariate analysis were enriched, and chromosomal instability indices were increased in samples expressing the ccB signature. The study may be underpowered to validate low-prevalence biomarkers. Conclusions The ccB signature was the only independent prognostic biomarker. Enrichment of multiple poor prognosis genetic alterations in ccB samples indicated that several events may be required to establish this aggressive phenotype, catalysed in some tumours by chromosomal instability. Multiregion assessment may improve the precision of this biomarker.European Urology 07/2014; 66(5). DOI:10.1016/j.eururo.2014.06.053 · 12.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Increased knowledge about the molecular pathways involved in tumorigenesis has led to the discovery of new prognostic molecular markers and development of novel targeted therapies for renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this review we describe the prognostic markers of RCC and highlight the areas of recent discovery with a focus on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.Methods We reviewed previous reports, using PubMed with the search terms ‘renal cell carcinoma’, ‘molecular markers’, ‘prognosis’, ‘outcomes’ and ‘mammalian target of rapamycin pathway’ published in the last two decades. We created a library of 100 references and focused on presenting the recent advances in the field.ResultsGrowing evidence suggests that mTOR deregulation is associated with many types of human cancer, including RCC. Consequently, temsirolimus and everolimus, which target mTOR, are approved for treating advanced RCC. There is a demand to integrate clinical, pathological and molecular markers into accurate prognostic models to provide patients with the most personalised cancer care possible.Conclusions The mTOR pathway is highly implicated in RCC tumorigenesis and progression, and its constituents might represent a promising prognostic tool and target for treating RCC. Combining newly discovered molecular markers with classic clinicopathological prognostics might potentially improve the management of RCC.06/2012; 10(2):110–117. DOI:10.1016/j.aju.2012.02.005
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ABSTRACT: Metastatic or recurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC) carries a poor prognosis and long term survival is rare. However, many small RCCs that are incidentally discovered have an indolent course even without treatment. The variability in clinical outcome is a reflection of the underlying tumor biology. Currently, clinical variables such as tumor stage and histologic grade are widely accepted surrogates for tumor-specific cellular and molecular processes. Ongoing advances in genomic and proteomic technologies have produced an expanding list of molecular markers for predicting prognosis. We review expression array studies evaluating molecular signatures for predicting prognosis in patients with RCC and describe specific prognostic markers that have been validated in at least 50 cases of RCC.Urologic Oncology 03/2008; 26(2):113-24. DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2007.03.028 · 3.36 Impact Factor