Insulin and oral agents for managing cystic fibrosis-related diabetes
ABSTRACT Insulin therapy is recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation when cystic fibrosis-related diabetes has been diagnosed. Diagnosis is based on an elevated fasting blood glucose level greater than 6.94 mmol/liter (125 mg/deciliter) or symptomatic diabetes for random glucose levels greater than 11.11 mmol/liter (200 mg/deciliter).
To examine the evidence that, when treated with agents for managing diabetes, people with cystic fibrosis improve their sugar metabolic control resulting in beneficial impact on lung function and the ability to maintain optimal weight.
We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also handsearched abstracts from pulmonary and North American Cystic Fibrosis Conference symposia. Date of the most recent search of the Group's Trials Register: December 2004.
Randomized controlled trials comparing all methods of diabetes therapy for one month or longer in people with cystic fibrosis.
No studies were found which were eligible for inclusion in this review.
Six references to four studies were identified by the searches, but none were eligible for inclusion in the review as they were not randomized controlled trials.
While some cystic fibrosis centers use oral medications to help control diabetes, a condition which complicates the course of cystic fibrosis, insulin therapy is the recommended and most widely used treatment method. Lung function has been reported to improve with the use of insulin, but this has not been correlated to the degree in which sugar metabolism has been affected. While the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation recommends insulin therapy be used in managing diabetes, this systematic review identifies the need for a multicentre randomized controlled trial assessing both the efficacy of insulin or other insulin-releasing or insulin-sensitizing medications and their possible adverse effects in managing cystic fibrosis-related diabetes.
SourceAvailable from: Tahseen A Chowdhury
Article: Insulin for the uninitiated.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Insulin therapy is important in many patients with diabetes, but the UK National Diabetes Inpatient Audit (NaDIA) suggests that insulin therapy in hospital is poorly monitored and managed. Although most hospitals should have access to an inpatient diabetes specialist team, it is important for the non-specialist clinician to be aware of the indications for insulin therapy, types of insulin and insulin regimens, methods of adjusting insulin doses and the need for care with insulin prescribing. Here, we demystify issues around insulin therapy. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.Clinical medicine (London, England) 12/2014; 14(6):623-9. DOI:10.7861/clinmedicine.14-6-623 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: As the average life expectancy of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) improves, the long term co-morbidities assume increasing importance. CF related diabetes (CFRD) has adverse effects on both nutrition and pulmonary function, and is associated with increased mortality. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism in CF represent a continuum; however the predominant abnormality is postprandial, not pre-prandial, glycaemia. Insulin is currently recommended as the treatment of choice for CFRD, but its use is associated with a number of limitations, including hypoglycaemia. Both the rate of gastric emptying and the consequent release of the ‘incretin’ hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like-peptide-1 (GLP-1), from the gut are important determinants of overall glycaemic control, particularly postprandial glycaemia. Both are abnormal in conditions associated with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Incretin based therapies that have the capacity to slow gastric emptying and/or modulate the release of ‘incretin’ hormones, are now used widely in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This paper explores the determinants of glycaemic control in CF, with a particular focus on the roles of gastric emptying and ‘incretin’ hormones, providing a rationale for the use of therapies that delay gastric emptying, including incretin mimetics, to minimise postprandial glycaemia and improve nutritional status.Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 11/2014; 28(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jdiacomp.2014.06.012 · 1.93 Impact Factor
Article: Cystic Fibrosis Related Diabetes.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Improved life expectancy in cystic fibrosis (CF) has led to an expanding population of adults with CF, now representing almost 50 % of the total CF population. This creates new challenges from long-term complications such as diabetes mellitus (DM), a condition that is present in 40 %-50 % of adults with CF. Cystic fibrosis-related diabetes (CFRD) results from a primary defect of insulin deficiency and although sharing features with type 1 (DM1) and type 2 diabetes (DM2), it is a clinically distinct condition. Progression to diabetes is associated with poorer CF clinical outcomes and increased mortality. CFRD is not associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the prevalence of microvascular complications is lower than DM1 or DM2. Rather, the primary goal of insulin therapy is the preservation of lung function and optimization of nutritional status. There is increasing evidence that appropriate screening and early intervention with insulin can reverse weight loss and improve pulmonary function. This approach may include targeting postprandial hyperglycemia not detected by standard diagnostic tests such as the oral glucose tolerance test. Further clinical research is required to guide when and how much to intervene in patients who are already dealing with the burden of one chronic illness.Current Diabetes Reports 08/2014; 14(8):511. DOI:10.1007/s11892-014-0511-3 · 3.38 Impact Factor