Low-molecular weight advanced glycation end products: markers of tissue AGE accumulation and more?
ABSTRACT Incomplete digestion of advanced glycation end product (AGE)-modified protein results in the formation of low-molecular weight degradation products incorporating AGE modifications (LMW-AGEs). In addition to being biomarkers of AGE modification, LMW-AGEs may have a high toxic potential, being free to interact with AGE receptors at distant sites via the circulation. Several free AGEs have been identified, including pentosidine, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), and free-imidazole AGEs. In addition, fluorescence (370 nm [excitation]/440 nm [emission]) in the LMW phase of serum correlates with tissue fluorescence, an established marker for AGE modification. In experimental diabetes, LMW fluorescence increases with duration of disease and is normalized with the AGE inhibitor aminoguanidine. LMW fluorescence is also higher in patients with diabetes, in whom it is associated with glomerular filtration rate and hemoglobin. Patients with hyperfiltration have lower LMW fluorescence than those with normal renal function, which may protect them from AGE accumulation in the short term. These findings provide clinical support for the association between AGEs and progressive renal injury in diabetes.
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ABSTRACT: The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that interacts with diverse endogenous ligands. Ligation of RAGE triggers a series of cellular signaling events, including the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB, leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and causing inflammation. While acute inflammation serves to resolve pathogen infection and stresses, which promote tissue repair, persistent inflammation results in maladaptive tissue remodeling and damage. RAGE signaling has been implicated in multiple detrimental human illnesses including diabetes, atherosclerosis, arthritis, and Alzheimer's disease. In addition, prolonged inflammation often serves as the precursor for arterial remodeling that underlies the exponential increase of age-associated arterial diseases. Despite the significant progress and exciting discoveries in RAGE research, little is known on the biochemistry of RAGE and the signaling mechanism of RAGE remains poorly defined. The biological impact of RAGE signaling in clinical situations and aging-associated diseases also remains to be fully realized. This review attempts to provide a comprehensive summary on both recent findings and missing pieces of the RAGE puzzle.Frontiers in Bioscience 02/2009; 14:1403-13. · 3.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Agents that inhibit glycation end products by reducing the carbonyl load from glycation and glycoxidation are an emerging pharmacologic approach to treat complications of diabetes. We previously demonstrated that antibodies generated to the glycoprotein keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) can cross-link with reactive carbonyl residues on protein conjugates. Here, we immunized streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with KLH to assess the capacity of the elicited antibodies to intercept carbonyl residues on glycated proteins and to mitigate glycation-related pathology. Compared with diabetic rats immunized with adjuvant alone, KLH-immunized diabetic rats had decreased levels of glycated peptides in sera and demonstrated a reduction in albuminuria, proteinuria, deposition of glycation end products in the kidney, and histologic damage. In vitro, low molecular weight glycated peptides from rat serum reacted with anti-KLH antibodies at a faster rate than normal IgG and selectively modified the lambda chains. The reaction products contained peptide sequences from type I collagen alpha chain, albumin, and LDL receptor-related protein. These adduction reactions were inhibited by free KLH and by reduction of glycated peptides with borohydride. In summary, these results suggest that inherent reactivity of Ig light chains provides a natural mechanism for the removal of cytotoxic glycation products. This reactivity can be augmented by glycoprotein-specific reactive immunization, a potential biopharmaceutical approach to glycation-related pathology.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 05/2009; 20(5):1012-9. · 8.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Coeliac disease is common in type 1 diabetes. It is managed with a gluten-free diet, characterised by foods low in AGEs. We hypothesised that this diet would lead to lower plasma AGEs and be associated with reduced albuminuria. From a single paediatric clinic, we recruited 21 children with type 1 diabetes and biopsy-proven coeliac disease, and 38 individuals with diabetes alone. The groups were matched for age, sex, duration of disease and metabolic control. Participants completed a detailed clinical and dietary history. Blood samples were taken for HbA(1c), coeliac serology, thyroid function, serum IgA levels and plasma AGEs, and urine samples were obtained for estimation of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR). All the individuals with coeliac disease were asymptomatic, with negative transglutaminase antibodies. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of age (14 years), sex (29% male), duration of diabetes (7 years), mean HbA(1c) (8.3%), lipid levels or treatment regimens. However, children with diabetes and coeliac disease had twofold lower levels of urinary ACR than with those diabetes alone (p = 0.04). This was associated with lower levels of circulating AGEs (p = 0.03). These associations were independent of metabolic control, diabetes management and other potentially confounding variables, such as household exposure to cigarette smoke. Adherence to a gluten-free diet may provide additional benefits for individuals with coeliac disease, and potentially those with type 1 diabetes.Diabetologia 03/2009; 52(5):798-800. · 6.49 Impact Factor