The influence of gender on loss of consciousness with sevoflurane or propofol.
ABSTRACT Studies have suggested that hypnotic requirements for general anesthesia and emergence may be influenced by gender. In this study, we examined the effect of gender on the hypnotic requirement for loss of consciousness (LOC) using either a volatile (sevoflurane) or an IV (propofol) anesthetic. One-hundred-fifteen unpremedicated, ASA physical status I-II patients, aged 18-40 yr old, received either sevoflurane by mask to a predetermined end-tidal concentration (%ET(sevo)) or propofol by target-controlled infusion (effect site) while breathing spontaneously. After sufficient time for equilibration, LOC was assessed by lack of response to mild prodding. The up-down method of Dixon was used to determine the hypnotic target concentration at 50% response (LOC(50)). No statistically significant difference in LOC(50) was noted between men and women for sevoflurane (0.83% +/- 0.1% and 0.92% +/- 0.09% ET, respectively). Men required significantly more propofol than women (2.9 +/- 0.2 versus 2.7 +/- 0.1 microg/mL, respectively). However, there was no difference in the bispectral index (BIS) at LOC for men or women with either hypnotic anesthetic. This investigation identified a small, statistically significant difference in hypnotic requirement at LOC(50) between men and women with propofol but not with sevoflurane. As defined by BIS, men and women had equivalent hypnotic states at LOC(50), indicating that gender had no clinically significant effect on hypnotic requirements. However, BIS at a defined clinical end-point (LOC(50)) was significantly different between the sevoflurane and propofol groups, suggesting that neurophysiological effects of these anesthetics may be different. IMPLICATIONS: Gender affects the dosing requirements for, and response to, many drugs used in anesthetic practice. Loss of consciousness is an early clinical marker of hypnotic drug effect. We found no significant difference to either an inhaled (sevoflurane) or IV (propofol) anesthetic related to patient gender.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Clinically optimized focusing of drug administration to specific need of patient with bispectral index (BIS) monitoring results in reduced dose and faster recovery of consciousness. This study was planned with an aim to study and compare the conventional clinical end point or BIS on the requirement of dosage of propofol, hemodynamic effects, and BIS alterations following propofol induction. 70 patients, ASA I and II, 20-60 years undergoing elective surgical procedure under general anesthesia with endotracheal intubation were selected and divided into two groups. Group A received (inj.) fentanyl (2 μg/kg), followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion till the loss of response to verbal command while group B received inj. fentanyl (2 μg/kg), followed 3 min later by inj. propofol at the rate of 30 mg/kg/hr infusion. The end point of hypnosis was when the BIS value was sustained for 1 min at 48±2. The patients were intubated. Total induction dose of propofol was noted in each group. The value of BIS and hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure) were noted at the time of loss of consciousness, at the time of intubation, and 1 min after intubation, thereafter every minute for first 10 min and thereafter every 10 min till end of surgery. Any involuntary muscle activity such as jerky movements, dystonic posturing, and opisthotonos were also recorded. The mean dose of propofol used in groups A and B were 1.85±0.48 mg/kg and 1.79±0.41 mg/kg, respectively. The dosage used in group B were less but not clinically significant (P=0.575). On comparing the dosage of propofol in males among the groups there was a significantly lower dosage of propofol required in group B (2.06±0.45 mg/kg and 1.83±0.32 mg/kg, respectively, P=0.016). This decrease however was not seen in female patients dosage being 1.65±0.44 mg/kg and 1.75±0.49 mg/kg, respectively (P=0.372). The hemodynamic variables including heart rate, systolic/diastolic blood pressure and BIS were comparable within the group at induction, post-induction, and intubation. However, there was a significant increase in all the parameters at postintubation readings (P<0.001). No significant difference in the induction dose of propofol was observed when assessed clinically (loss of verbal response) or by BIS monitoring. Traditional teaching to titrate the dose of propofol and depth of anesthesia during intubation by loss of verbal response is as good as BIS value monitoring.Saudi journal of anaesthesia. 01/2013; 7(1):75-79.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We hypothesized that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs decrease the plasma fentanyl concentration required to produce immobility in 50% of patients in response to skin incision (Cp50incision) compared with placebo under target-controlled infusion (TCI) propofol anesthesia. Sixty-two unpremedicated patients scheduled to undergo gynecologic laparoscopy were randomly assigned to receive placebo (control group) or flurbiprofen axetil 1 mg·kg(-1) (flurbiprofen group) preoperatively. General anesthesia was induced with fentanyl and propofol, and intubation was performed after succinylcholine 1 mg·kg(-1). Propofol was administered via a target-controlled infusion (TCI) system (Diprifusor™) set at an effect-site concentration of 5 μg·mL(-1). Fentanyl was given by a TCI system using the STANPUMP software (Schafer model). The concentration for the first patient was set at 3 ng·mL(-1) and modified in each group according to the up-down method. Skin incision was performed after more than ten minutes equilibration time. Serum fentanyl concentration, bispectral index (BIS), and hemodynamic parameters were measured two minutes before and after skin incision. The Cp50incision of fentanyl was derived from the mean of the crossovers (i.e., the serum fentanyl concentrations of successive participants who responded and those who did not or vice versa). Ten and 11 independent crossover pairs were collected in the control and flurbiprofen groups, respectively, representing 42 of 62 enrolled patients. The mean (SD) fentanyl Cp50incision was less in the flurbiprofen group [0.84 (0.63) ng·mL(-1)] than in the control group [1.65 (1.15) ng·mL(-1)]; P = 0.007; however, there were no differences in BIS, blood pressure, or heart rate, between groups. Preoperative flurbiprofen axetil decreased the Cp50incision of fentanyl by 49% during propofol anesthesia without changing the BIS or hemodynamic variables.Canadian Anaesthetists? Society Journal 09/2013; · 2.31 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A classic general anesthesia is performed by induction with an intravenous hypnotic (such as propofol) and maintenance with a volatile anesthetic (such as sevoflurane). The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of a propofol/sevoflurane maintenance regimen with that of a sevoflurane regimen on recovery profiles. One hundred and sixty patients, who were ASA 1 or 2, 45-65 years of age, and scheduled for elective gastrointestinal surgery under combined general/epidural anesthesia, were allocated randomly to receive the sevoflurane maintenance regimen (group S, n = 80) or sevoflurane/propofol regimen (group SP, n = 80). After induction, anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane in group S and sevoflurane with propofol (1.2 μg/ml target plasma concentration) in group SP. Bispectral index (BIS) values were maintained within 40-60 during the maintenance. Time to extubation, incidence of serious coughing and agitation, and other recovery characteristics were evaluated during emergence. The time to awakening and extubation in group SP were 7.2 ± 2 min and 8.0 ± 1.8 min, respectively, which were shorter than those results in group S (12.3 ± 1.5 and 12.8 ± 1.6 min, respectively) (P < 0.05). The incidence of serious coughing and agitation in SP (30 % and 25 %) was lower than that of group S (68 % and 53 %) (P < 0.05). BIS value, pain score, requirements of analgesics and antiemetics in the PACU, and length of stay in the PACU were similar in the two groups. Compared to sevoflurane maintenance, coadministration of propofol and sevoflurane provides faster awakening and extubation with a low incidence of emergence coughing and agitation.Journal of Anesthesia 02/2014; · 0.87 Impact Factor