D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria is a neurometabolic disorder with mild and severe phenotypes. Recently, we reported pathogenic mutations in the D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase gene as the cause of the severe phenotype of D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria in two patients. Here, we report two novel pathogenic mutations in this gene in one patient with a mild presentation and two asymptomatic siblings with D-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria from two unrelated consanguineous Palestinian families: a splice error (IVS4-2A-->G) and a missense mutation (c.1315A-->G;p.Asn439Asp). Overexpression of this mutant protein showed marked reduction of the enzyme activity.
"D-2-HGA Remarks References Type I (n026) 1 patient affected with comorbid Sanfilippo syndrome type C Gibson et al 1993b; Craigen et al 1994; Van der Knaap et al 1999b; Misra et al 2005; Struys et al 2005a; b; Haliloglu et al 2009; Kranendijk et al 2010a; Pervaiz et al 2011 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The organic acidurias D: -2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA), L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (L-2-HGA), and combined D,L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D,L-2-HGA) cause neurological impairment at young age. Accumulation of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG) and/or L-2-hydroxyglutarate (L-2-HG) in body fluids are the biochemical hallmarks of these disorders. The current review describes the knowledge gathered on 2-hydroxyglutaric acidurias (2-HGA), since the description of the first patients in 1980. We report on the clinical, genetic, enzymatic and metabolic characterization of D-2-HGA type I, D-2-HGA type II, L-2-HGA and D,L-2-HGA, whereas for D-2-HGA type I and type II novel clinical information is presented which was derived from questionnaires.
"Bayesian posterior probabilities expressed as percentage are indicated above the clades. D. pulex genes that appear to be untranslated are represented in bold b J Mol Evol (2009) 69:276–287 285 (Struys et al. 2005), and brain oxidative stress damage (Kuehnle et al. 2008), respectively. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lactate dehydrogenases which convert lactate to pyruvate are found in almost every organism and comprise a group of highly divergent proteins in amino acid sequence, catalytic properties, and substrate specificity. While the L-lactate dehydrogenases are among the most studied enzymes, very little is known about the structure and function of D-lactate dehydrogenases (D-LDHs) which include two discrete classes of enzymes that are classified based on their ability to transfer electrons and/or protons to NAD in NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases (nLDHs), and FAD in NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases (iLDHs). In this study, we used a combination of structural and phylogenomic approaches to reveal the likely evolutionary events in the history of the recently described FAD binding oxidoreductase/transferase type 4 family that led to the evolution of D-iLDHs (commonly referred as DLD). Our phylogenetic reconstructions reveal that DLD genes from eukaryotes form a paraphyletic group with respect to D-2-hydroxyglutarate dehydrogenase (D2HGDH). All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered two divergent yeast DLD phylogroups. While the first group (DLD1) showed close phylogenetic relationships with the animal and plant DLDs, the second yeast group (DLD2) revealed strong phylogenetic and structural similarities to the plant and animal D2HGDH group. Our data strongly suggest that the functional assignment of the yeast DLD2 group should be carefully revisited. The present study demonstrates that structural phylogenomic approach can be used to resolve important evolutionary events in functionally diverse superfamilies and to provide reliable functional predictions to poorly characterized genes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: D-2-Hydroxyglutaric aciduria (D-2-HGA) is a neurometabolic inherited disorder first described in 1980. In the following years, it became clear that the clinical phenotype of the disease varies widely from severe neonatal to asymptomatic. However, the sparse biochemical knowledge made D-2-HGA a poorly understood disease. Much progress has been made in the last five years in various studies, revealing two human enzymes that play a role in the metabolism of D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG): hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) and D-2-HG dehydrogenase. HOT is expected to be responsible for the formation of D-2-HG, while D-2-HG dehydrogenase converts D-2-HG into 2-ketoglutarate. We demonstrated pathogenic mutations in the D2HGD gene in patients with D-2-HGA, helping to unravel the primary defect causing D-2-HGA. However, in approximately 50% of the patients with D-2-HGA examined, no pathogenic mutations have yet been found.
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