hKSR-2 inhibits MEKK3-activated MAP kinase and NF-kappaB pathways in inflammation.
ABSTRACT Kinase suppressor of ras (KSR) and MEKK3 (MAP kinase kinase kinase) are integral members of the MAP kinase pathway. We have recently identified a new isoform of the KSR family named human kinase suppressor of ras-2 (hKSR-2), and demonstrated that hKSR-2 negatively regulates Cot, a MAP3K family member which is important in inflammation and oncogenesis [P.L. Channavajhala, L. Wu, J.W. Cuozzo, J.P. Hall, W. Liu, L.L. Lin, Y. Zhang, J. Biol. Chem. 278 (2003) 47089-47097]. In this report, we provide evidence that hKSR-2 also regulates the activity of MEKK3 (another MAP3K family member) in HEK-293T cells. We demonstrate that hKSR-2 is a negative regulator of MEKK3-mediated activation of MAP kinase (specifically ERK and JNK) and NF-kappaB pathways, and concurrently inhibits MEKK3-mediated interleukin-8 production. We find that while hKSR-2 blocks MEKK3 activation, it has little to no effect on other members of the MAP3K family, including MEKK4, TAK1, and Ras-Raf, suggesting that its effects are selective.
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ABSTRACT: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is the canonical signaling pathway for many receptor tyrosine kinases, such as the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor. Downstream of the receptors, this pathway involves the activation of a kinase cascade that culminates in a transcriptional response and affects processes, such as cell migration and adhesion. In addition, the strength and duration of the upstream signal also influence the mode of the cellular response that is switched on. Thus, the same components can in principle coordinate opposite responses, such as proliferation and differentiation. In recent years, it has become evident that MAPK signaling is regulated and fine-tuned by proteins that can bind to several MAPK signaling proteins simultaneously and, thereby, affect their function. These so-called MAPK scaffolding proteins are, thus, important coordinators of the signaling response in cells. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway scaffolders. We will not only review the well-known members of the family, such as kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR), but also put a special focus on the function of the recently identified or less studied scaffolders, such as fibroblast growth factor receptor substrate 2, flotillin-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase organizer 1.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2013; 14(3):4854-84. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Metabolites and derivatives of vitamin D are well-known inducers of monocytic differentiation, but the mechanistic basis for their action is not fully elucidated. Here we show that the product of protooncogene Cot1 represses the monocytic phenotype in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells induced to differentiate by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25D), even though the expression of cellular Cot1 increases early in the process of 1,25D-induced differentiation. Interestingly, the expression of the two members of the Kinase Suppressor of Ras (KSR) family of molecular scaffolds, known to be positive regulators of Ras signaling and of 1,25D-induced differentiation, increases in parallel with Cot1 in 1,25D-treated cells. However, KSR1/2 are negatively regulated by Cot1, as determined by transfection of siCot1, and confirmed by a reverse effect of ectopic expression of Cot1. The effect of Cot1 in AML cells appears to be cell-type specific, as previous reports in other cell types found KSR-2 to be a negative regulator of Cot1, a reverse relationship. Also in contrast to findings in other cells, in AML cells Cot1 exerts negative control on the MAP kinase pathways, since siCot1 increases the levels of activated Raf1, p90RSK, JNK1, c-jun, and p38, though not of MEK/ERK. These findings have implications for therapy of AML, since in AML cells active MAPKs hasten cell differentiation, and specific pharmacological inhibitors of Cot1 kinase activity have recently became available, thus making Cot1 a "druggable" target.Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2010; 226(5):1232-40. · 4.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stimulation of resident cells by NF-κB activating cytokines is a central element of inflammatory and degenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). This disease-mediated NF-κB activation could be used to drive transgene expression selectively in affected cells, using adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene transfer. We have constructed a series of AAV vectors expressing GFP under the control of different promoters including NF-κB -responsive elements. As an initial screen, the vectors were tested in vitro in HEK-293T cells treated with TNF-α. The best profile of GFP induction was obtained with a promoter containing two blocks of four NF-κB -responsive sequences from the human JCV neurotropic polyoma virus promoter, fused to a new tight minimal CMV promoter, optimally distant from each other. A therapeutical gene, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) cDNA under the control of serotype 1-encapsidated NF-κB -responsive AAV vector (AAV-NF) was protective in senescent cultures of mouse cortical neurons. AAV-NF was then evaluated in vivo in the kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus rat model for temporal lobe epilepsy, a major neurological disorder with a central pathophysiological role for NF-κB activation. We demonstrate that AAV-NF, injected in the hippocampus, responded to disease induction by mediating GFP expression, preferentially in CA1 and CA3 neurons and astrocytes, specifically in regions where inflammatory markers were also induced. Altogether, these data demonstrate the feasibility to use disease-activated transcription factor-responsive elements in order to drive transgene expression specifically in affected cells in inflammatory CNS disorders using AAV-mediated gene transfer.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e53156. · 3.73 Impact Factor