Sox proteins and neural crest development.
ABSTRACT Among the families of transcription factors expressed at the neural plate border in response to neural crest-inducing signals, Sox proteins have emerged as important players in regulating multiple aspects of neural crest development. Here, we summarize the expression of six Sox genes, namely Sox8, Sox9, Sox10, LSox5, Sox4 and Sox11, in neural crest progenitors and their derivatives, and review some aspects of their function pertaining to neural crest development in several species.
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ABSTRACT: The general view of development consists of the acquisition of committed/differentiated phenotypes following a period of self-renewal and progenitor expansion. Lineage specification and progression are phenomena of antagonistic events, silencing tissue-specific gene expression in precursors to allow self-renewal and multipotentiality, and subsequently suppressing proliferation and embryonic gene expression to promote the restricted expression of tissue-specific genes during maturation. The high mobility group-containing Sox family of transcription factors constitutes one of the earliest classes of genes to be expressed during embryonic development. These proteins not only are indispensable for progenitor cell specification but also are critical for terminal differentiation of multiple cell types in a wide variety of lineages. Sox transcription factors are now known to induce or repress progenitor cell characteristics and cell proliferation or to activate the expression of tissue-specific genes. Sox proteins fulfill their diverse functions in developmental regulation by distinct molecular mechanisms. Not surprisingly, in addition to DNA binding and bending, Sox transcription factors also interact with different protein partners to function as coactivators or corepressors of downstream target genes. Here we seek to provide an overview of the current knowledge of Sox gene functional mechanisms, in an effort to understand their roles in both development and pathology.Journal of Neuroscience Research 11/2009; 87(15):3277-87. DOI:10.1002/jnr.22128 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Among the families of transcription factors expressed at the neural plate border, Sox proteins have been shown to regulate multiple aspects of neural crest development. Sox8, Sox9 and Sox10, exhibit overlapping expression domains in neural crest progenitors, and studies in mouse suggest that Sox8 functions redundantly with Sox9 and Sox10 during neural crest development. Here, we show that in Xenopus, Sox8 accumulates at the lateral edges of the neural plate at the mid-gastrula stage; in contrast to its mouse and chick orthologs, Sox8 expression precedes that of Sox9 and Sox10 in neural crest progenitors. Later in development, Sox8 expression persists in migrating cranial crest cells as they populate the pharyngeal arches and in trunk neural crest cells, in a pattern that recapitulates both Sox9 and Sox10 expression domains. Although morpholino-mediated knockdown of Sox8 protein did not prevent the formation of neural crest progenitors, the timing of their induction was severely affected. This delay in neural crest specification had dramatic consequences on the development of multiple lineages of the neural crest. We demonstrate that these defects are due to the inability of neural crest cells to migrate into the periphery, rather than to a deficiency in neural crest progenitors specification and survival. These results indicate that the control of Sox8 expression at the neural plate border is a key process in initiating neural crest formation in Xenopus, and highlight species-specific differences in the relative importance of SoxE proteins during neural crest development.Development 11/2006; 133(19):3817-26. DOI:10.1242/dev.02558 · 6.27 Impact Factor
- Advances in Biological Chemistry 01/2014; 04(05):322-330. DOI:10.4236/abc.2014.45037