Tumor-necrosis-factor-related apoptosis-inducing-ligand (TRAIL)-mediated death of neurons in living human brain tissue is inhibited by flupirtine-maleate.
ABSTRACT Neuronal damage mediated by the TRAIL-system might be involved in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Here we used an investigator-independent approach to quantify TRAIL-mediated death of total CNS cells and neurons in a living human brain slice culture system, a model which is much closer to the in vivo situation than dissociated cell culture. We observed dose-dependent TRAIL-mediated death of both total human CNS cells and neurons, which was prevented by flupirtine-maleate, a centrally acting analgesic drug with proposed neuroprotective properties. Our data suggest flupirtine-maleate as an orally available neuroprotective approach in the course of neuroinflammation.
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ABSTRACT: In recent years it has become clear that the neuronal compartment already plays an important role early in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Neuronal injury in the course of chronic neuroinflammation is a key factor in determining long-term disability in patients. Viewing MS as both inflammatory and neurodegenerative has major implications for therapy, with CNS protection and repair needed in addition to controlling inflammation. Here, the authors' review recently elucidated molecular insights into inflammatory neuronal/axonal pathology in MS and discuss the resulting options regarding neuroprotective and regenerative treatment strategies.Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics 09/2012; 12(9):1061-77. · 2.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Deposition of extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of Aβ is thought to associate with cognition deficits, neuroinflammation and apoptosis observed in AD. However, effective neuroprotective approaches against Aβ neurotoxicity are unavailable. In the present study, we analysed the effects of pranlukast, a selective cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist, on the impairment of learning and memory formation induced by Aβ and the probable underlying electrophysiological and molecular mechanisms. We found that bilateral intrahippocampal injection of Aβ 1-42 resulted in a significant decline of spatial learning and memory of mice in the Morris water maze (MWM) and Y-maze tests, together with a serious depression of in vivo hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 region of the mice. Importantly, this treatment caused significant increases in CysLT1R expression and subsequent NF-κB signaling, caspase-3 activation and Bcl-2 downregulation in the hippocampus or prefrontal cortex. Oral administration of pranlukast at 0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg for 4 wk significantly reversed Aβ 1-42-induced impairments of cognitive function and hippocampal LTP in mice. Furthermore, pranlukast reversed Aβ 1-42-induced CysLT1R upregulation, and markedly suppressed the Aβ 1-42-triggered NF-κB pathway, caspase-3 activation and Bcl-2 downregulation in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in mice. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay confirmed its presence in the brain after oral administration of pranlukast in mice. These data disclose novel findings about the therapeutic potential of pranlukast, revealing a previously unknown therapeutic possibility to treat memory deficits associated with AD.The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 11/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), which can invoke a cascade of inflammatory responses, is considered to play a causal role in the development and progress of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Montelukast, known as a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLT1R) antagonist, is currently used for treatment of inflammatory diseases such as asthma. We have previously reported that CysLT1R activation is involved in Aβ generation. In this study, we investigated rescuing effect of CysLT1R antagonist montelukast on Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity in primary neurons. Our data showed that Aβ1-42 elicited a marked increase of CysLT1R expression in primary mouse neurons. This increment of CysLT1R expression was accompanied by increases of inflammatory factors such as NF-κB p65, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as well as pro-apoptotic protein Caspase-3 activation and anti-apoptosis protein Bcl-2 reduction. Aβ1-42-mediated increase of CysLT1R expression was associated with Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity as measured by MTT reduction assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. This observation was confirmed with treatment of montelukast, a selective CysLT1R antagonist, which had significant effect on Aβ1-42-induced cytotoxicity. Moreover, blockade of CysLT1R with montelukast reversed Aβ1-42-mediated increase of CysLT1R expression, and concomitant changes of the pro-inflammatory factors and the apoptosis-related proteins. The results demonstrate that montelukast rescued neurons against Aβ1-42-induced neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation and apoptosis by down-regulating CysLT1R-mediated NF-κB signaling, suggesting that CysLT1R may be a potential target for AD, and its antagonist may have beneficial effects for treatment of AD.Neurochemistry International 05/2014; · 2.66 Impact Factor