Insights into biological functions across species: examining the role of Rab proteins in YIP1 family function.
ABSTRACT The YIP1 family comprises an evolutionarily conserved group of membrane proteins, which share the ability to bind di-prenylated Rab proteins. The biochemical capability of YIP1 family proteins suggests a possible role in the cycle of physical localization of Rab proteins between their cognate membranes and the cytosol. YIP1 is essential for viability in yeast and a deletion of YIP1 can be rescued with the human homologue YIP1A. We have made use of this evolutionary conservation of function to generate a series of mutant alleles of YIP1 to investigate the biological role of Yip1p. Our findings indicate evidence for the participation of Yip1p in both Rab and COPII protein function; at present, we are not able to distinguish between the models that these roles represent, i.e. independent or dependent activities of Yip1p.
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ABSTRACT: During neuron development, the biosynthetic needs of the axon initially outweigh those of dendrites. However, although a localized role for the early secretory pathway in dendrite development has been observed, such a role in axon growth remains undefined. We therefore studied the localization of Sar1, a small GTPase that controls ER export, during early stages of neuronal development that are characterized by selective and robust axon growth. At these early stages, Sar1 was selectively targeted to the axon where it gradually concentrated within varicosities in which additional proteins that function in the early secretory pathway were detected. Sar1 targeting to the axon followed axon specification and was dependent on localized actin instability. Changes in Sar1 expression levels at these early development stages modulated axon growth. Specifically, reduced expression of Sar1, which was initially only detectable in the axon, correlated with reduced axon growth, where as overexpression of Sar1 supported the growth of longer axons. In support of the former finding, expression of dominant negative Sar1 inhibited axon growth. Thus, as observed in lower organisms, mammalian cells use temporal and spatial regulation of endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES) to address developmental biosynthetic demands. Furthermore, axons, such as dendrites, rely on ERES targeting and assembly for growth.Traffic 08/2009; 10(11):1669-84. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2009.00974.x · 4.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Yip1A, a mammalian homologue of yeast Yip1p, is a multi-spanning membrane protein that is considered to be involved in transport between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi. However, the precise role of Yip1A in mammalian cells remains unclear. We show here that endogenous Yip1A is localized to the ER-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC). Knockdown of Yip1A by RNAi did not induce morphological changes in the Golgi, ER, or ERGIC. By analyzing a number of intracellular transport pathways, we found that Yip1A knockdown delayed the transport of Shiga toxin from the Golgi to the ER, but did not affect the anterograde transport of VSVGts045. We also found that a recombinant protein that corresponded to the N-terminal domain of Yip1A inhibited the COPI-independent retrograde transport of GFP-tagged galactosyltransferase, GT-GFP, but not the COPI-dependent retrograde transport of p58/ERGIC53. Furthermore, we found that Yip1A knockdown resulted in the dissociation of Rab6 from the membranes. These results suggested that Yip1A has a role in COPI-independent retrograde transport from the Golgi to the ER and regulates the membrane recruitment of Rab6.Journal of Cell Science 08/2009; 122(Pt 13):2218-27. DOI:10.1242/jcs.043414 · 5.33 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We applied fluorescence microscopy-based quantitative assays to living cells to identify regulators of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-to-Golgi trafficking and/or Golgi complex maintenance. We first validated an automated procedure to identify factors which influence Golgi-to-ER relocalization of GalT-CFP (β1,4-galactosyltransferase I-cyan fluorescent protein) after brefeldin A (BFA) addition and/or wash-out. We then tested 14 proteins that localize to the ER and/or Golgi complex when overexpressed for a role in ER-to-Golgi trafficking. Nine of them interfered with the rate of BFA-induced redistribution of GalT-CFP from the Golgi complex to the ER, six of them interfered with GalT-CFP redistribution from the ER to a juxtanuclear region (i.e. the Golgi complex) after BFA wash-out and six of them were positive effectors in both assays. Notably, our live-cell approach captures regulator function in ER-to-Golgi trafficking, which was missed in previous fixed cell assays, as well as assigns putative roles for other less characterized proteins. Moreover, we show that our assays can be extended to RNAi and chemical screens.Traffic 12/2011; 13(3):416-32. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0854.2011.01318.x · 4.71 Impact Factor