Characteristics of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder and that associated with MSA and PD.
ABSTRACT To compare the clinical and video-polysomnographic (VPSG) characteristics of idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) vs the RBD seen in multiple system atrophy (MSA) and Parkinson disease (PD).
Clinical features and VPSG measures were evaluated in 110 consecutive nondemented subjects (26 MSA, 45 PD, and 39 idiopathic RBD) free of psychoactive medications referred for suspected RBD to our sleep unit over a 5-year period, with extended follow-up (mean 26.9 +/- 21.3 months).
Across the three groups studied, logistic regression analysis demonstrated that there were no differences in the quality of RBD symptoms (e.g., nature of unpleasant dream recall or behaviors witnessed by bed partners), most PSG variables, abnormal behaviors captured by VPSG, and clinical response to clonazepam. When compared to subjects with PD, however, patients with MSA had a significantly shorter duration of disease, a higher REM sleep without atonia percentage, a greater periodic leg movement index, and less total sleep time. Subjects with idiopathic RBD, as compared to those with either MSA or PD, were more often male, had greater self-reported clinical RBD severity, and were more often aware of their abnormal sleep behaviors.
REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD)-related symptoms and neurophysiologic features are qualitatively similar in RBD subjects with the idiopathic form, multiple system atrophy (MSA), and Parkinson disease (PD). Polysomnographic abnormalities associated with RBD in the setting of MSA are greater than in PD, suggesting a more severe dysfunction in the structures that modulate REM sleep.
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ABSTRACT: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in mammals is associated with wakelike cortical and hippocampal activation and concurrent postural muscle atonia. Research during the past 5 decades has revealed the details of the neural circuitry regulating REM sleep and muscle atonia during this state. REM-active glutamatergic neurons in the sublaterodorsal nucleus (SLD) of the dorsal pons are critical for generation for REM sleep atonia. Descending projections from SLD glutamatergic neurons activate inhibitory premotor neurons in the ventromedial medulla (VMM) and in the spinal cord to antagonize the glutamatergic supraspinal inputs on the motor neurons during REM sleep. REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) consists of simple behaviors (i.e., twitching, jerking) and complex behaviors (i.e., defensive behavior, talking). Animal research has lead to the hypothesis that complex behaviors in RBD are due to SLD pathology, while simple behaviors of RBD may be due to less severe SLD pathology or dysfunction of the VMM, ventral pons, or spinal cord.Sleep Medicine 06/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a clinical condition characterized by an intermittent or complete loss of muscle atonia and an increase of phasic muscular activity during REM sleep (or Stage R), leading to complex nocturnal motor behaviors. Correct and early diagnosis is important because RBD may lead to serious injuries and is a well-treatable disorder. Since the characteristic electrophysiologic finding in patients with RBD is the increased electromyographic tone during REM sleep/Stage R, simultaneous video/polysomnography recording is essential for diagnosing this parasomnia. Moreover, several neurophysiological techniques have been used to improve our knowledge and understanding of this troubling sleep disorder. We reviewed the most important studies employing quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, transcranial magnetic stimulation, brainstem reflexes and cortico-muscular coherence analysis. All these neurophysiological techniques have proven to provide a valuable tool to gain insight into the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying RBD. The review concludes with a brief discussion on the possible future implications for improving therapeutic approaches.Neuroscience Research 03/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathologic substrates in patients with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) with or without a coexisting neurologic disorder. METHODS: The clinical and neuropathologic findings were analyzed on all autopsied cases from one of the collaborating sites in North America and Europe, were evaluated from January 1990 to March 2012, and were diagnosed with polysomnogram (PSG)-proven or probable RBD with or without a coexisting neurologic disorder. The clinical and neuropathologic diagnoses were based on published criteria. RESULTS: 172 cases were identified, of whom 143 (83%) were men. The mean±SD age of onset in years for the core features were as follows - RBD, 62±14 (range, 20-93), cognitive impairment (n=147); 69±10 (range, 22-90), parkinsonism (n=151); 68±9 (range, 20-92), and autonomic dysfunction (n=42); 62±12 (range, 23-81). Death age was 75±9years (range, 24-96). Eighty-two (48%) had RBD confirmed by PSG, 64 (37%) had a classic history of recurrent dream enactment behavior, and 26 (15%) screened positive for RBD by questionnaire. RBD preceded the onset of cognitive impairment, parkinsonism, or autonomic dysfunction in 87 (51%) patients by 10±12 (range, 1-61) years. The primary clinical diagnoses among those with a coexisting neurologic disorder were dementia with Lewy bodies (n=97), Parkinson's disease with or without mild cognitive impairment or dementia (n=32), multiple system atrophy (MSA) (n=19), Alzheimer's disease (AD)(n=9) and other various disorders including secondary narcolepsy (n=2) and neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation-type 1 (NBAI-1) (n=1). The neuropathologic diagnoses were Lewy body disease (LBD)(n=77, including 1 case with a duplication in the gene encoding α-synuclein), combined LBD and AD (n=59), MSA (n=19), AD (n=6), progressive supranulear palsy (PSP) (n=2), other mixed neurodegenerative pathologies (n=6), NBIA-1/LBD/tauopathy (n=1), and hypothalamic structural lesions (n=2). Among the neurodegenerative disorders associated with RBD (n=170), 160 (94%) were synucleinopathies. The RBD-synucleinopathy association was particularly high when RBD preceded the onset of other neurodegenerative syndrome features. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series of PSG-confirmed and probable RBD cases that underwent autopsy, the strong association of RBD with the synucleinopathies was further substantiated and a wider spectrum of disorders which can underlie RBD now are more apparent.Sleep Medicine 03/2013; · 3.49 Impact Factor