Quality of care by classification of myocardial infarction - Treatment patterns for ST-segment elevation vs non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Archives of Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 17.33). 08/2005; 165(14):1630-6. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.165.14.1630
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Practice guidelines for acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI) recommend similar therapies and interventions, but differences in patterns of care between MI categories have not been well described in contemporary practice.
In-hospital treatments with similar recommendations from practice guidelines were compared with outcomes in 185 968 eligible patients (without listed contraindications) with STEMI (n = 53 417; 29%) vs NSTEMI (n = 132 551; 71%) from 1247 US hospitals participating in the National Registry of Myocardial Infarction 4 between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002. Hierarchical logistic regression modeling was used to determine adjusted differences in treatment patterns in MI categories.
Unadjusted in-hospital mortality rates were high for NSTEMI (12.5%) and STEMI (14.3%), and the use of guideline-recommended medications and interventions was suboptimal in both categories of patients with MI. The adjusted likelihood of receiving early (within 24 hours of presentation) aspirin, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was higher in patients with STEMI. Similar patterns of care were noted at hospital discharge: the adjusted likelihood of receiving aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, lipid-lowering agents, smoking cessation counseling, and cardiac rehabilitation referral was higher in patients with STEMI.
Evidence-based medications and lifestyle modification interventions were used less frequently in patients with NSTEMI. Quality improvement interventions designed to narrow the gaps in care between NSTEMI and STEMI and to improve adherence to guidelines for both categories of patients with MI may reduce the high mortality rates associated with acute MI in contemporary practice.

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Available from: Charles V Pollack, Aug 14, 2014
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    • "The percentage of MI cases with ST-segment elevation varies in different registries/databases and depends heavily on the age of patients included and the type of surveillance used. Among the registries, about 29% of US in-hospital patients with MI are STEMI [7], whereas 47% of European patients with MI are STEMI [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Clinical studies have demonstrated the predictive values of changes in electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters for the preexisting myocardial ischemic infarction. However, a simple and early predictor for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction during the ischemic phase is of significant value for the identification of ischemic patients at high risk. The present study was undertaken by using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction to fulfill this gap. Twenty male Rhesus monkeys at age of 2-3 years old were subjected to left anterior descending artery ligation. This ligation was performed at varying position along the artery so that it produced varying sizes of myocardial infarction at the late stage. The ECG recording was undertaken before the surgical procedure, at 2 h after the ligation, and 8 weeks after the surgery for each animal. The correlation of the changes in the ECG waves in the early or the late stage with the myocardial infarction size was analyzed. The R wave depression and the QT shortening in the early ischemic stage were found to have an inverse correlation with the myocardial infarction size. At the late stage, the R wave depression, the QT prolongation, the QRS score, and the ST segment elevation were all closely correlated with the developed infarction size. The poor R wave progression was identified at both the early ischemic and the late infarction stages. Therefore, the present study using non-human primate model of myocardial ischemic infarction identified the decreases in the R wave and the QT interval as early predictors of myocardial infarction. Validation of these parameters in clinical studies would greatly help identifying patients with myocardial ischemia at high risk for the subsequent development of myocardial infarction.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e71876. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0071876 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US.1 Acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are responsible for more than 1.3 million hospitalizations in the US annually.1 Registry data indicate that nearly 30% of these cases are due to ST-elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI).2 In patients with STEMI, timely reperfusion is the primary goal, and this is often achieved through primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).3 "
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the US. For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), urgent reperfusion of the culprit arterial occlusion, often achieved via primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), reduces post-MI mortality and other major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Adjunctive antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapies are used during PCI to reduce MACE rates. Currently, a variety of antithrombotic options are available for peri-procedural use. The most commonly used agents include unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin ± glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GPI). These agents reduce the rates of peri-procedural ischemic and thrombotic events, though these benefits come at the cost of an increase in bleeding complications. Bivalirudin is a direct thrombin inhibitor with a short half-life and linear pharmacokinetics, which results in predictable serum concentrations and anticoagulant effect. Bivalirudin has emerged as an efficacious and safe alternative to heparin plus GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in both stable coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome patients. In the HORIZONS-AMI trial, monotherapy with bivalirudin was compared with the combination of heparin and a GPI in a large population of patients with STEMI who underwent primary PCI. Bivalirudin treatment was associated with improved event-free survival at 30 days and reduced rates of major bleeding. Based on the results of the trial, the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines have incorporated recommendations for bivalirudin use in the setting of STEMI. Recently, 3-year follow-up data from the HORIZONS-AMI cohort were published, demonstrating sustained benefits in patients treated with bivalirudin, including reduced rates of mortality, cardiovascular mortality, reinfarction, and major bleeding events. These results further support the use of bivalirudin in the setting of primary PCI for STEMI given that its benefits are maintained through long-term follow-up.
    Vascular Health and Risk Management 02/2012; 8(1):115-23. DOI:10.2147/VHRM.S23491
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    • "Other factors than patient characteristics and treatment strategy that may account for worse outcome in non-STEMI are the fact that identification of MI is often delayed due to lack of definitive ECG abnormalities and timing of cardiac troponin elevation [23,24]. In addition, almost half of patients with non-STEMI have other symptoms than chest pain when first seen, which may contribute to delayed diagnosis [25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The worse prognosis in patients without ST-elevation (non-STEMI) as compared to ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), may be due to treatment differences. We aimed to evaluate the differences in characteristics, treatment and outcome in patients with non-STEMI versus STEMI in an unselected patient population. Individual patient data from all patients in our hospital with a discharge diagnosis of MI between Jan 2001 and Jan 2002 were evaluated. Follow-up data were obtained until December 2004. Patients were categorized according to the presenting electrocardiogram into non-STEMI or STEMI. A total of 824 patients were discharged with a diagnosis of MI, 29% with non-STEMI and 71% with STEMI. Patients with non-STEMI were significantly older and had a higher cardiovascular risk profile. They underwent less frequently coronary angiography and revascularization and received less often clopidogrel and ACE-inhibitor on discharge. Long-term mortality was significantly higher in the non-STEMI patients as compared to STEMI patients, 20% vs. 12%, p = 0.006, respectively. However, multivariate analysis showed that age, diabetes, hypertension and no reperfusion therapy (but not non-STEMI presentation) were independent and significant predictors of long-term mortality. In an unselected cohort of patients discharged with MI, there were significant differences in baseline characteristics, and (invasive) treatment between STEMI and non-STEMI. Long-term mortality was also different, but this was due to differences in baseline characteristics and treatment. More aggressive treatment may improve outcome in non-STEMI patients.
    BMC Cardiovascular Disorders 02/2007; 7(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1471-2261-7-8 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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