Cell adhesion in Arabidopsis thaliana is mediated by ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS 1--a glycosyltransferase (GT64) related to the animal exostosins.
ABSTRACT Despite the fact that several hundred glycosyltransferases have been identified from sequencing of plant genomes, the biological functions of only a handful have been established to date. A Poplar glycosyltransferase 64 (GT64) family member that is differentially expressed during the cell division and elongation phases of cambial growth was identified from previously generated transcript profiling of cambium tissues. The predicted Poplar GT64 protein has a closely related Arabidopsis homolog ECTOPICALLY PARTING CELLS (EPC1). Mutation of the EPC1 gene, one of three Arabidopsis GT64 family members, results in plants with a dramatically reduced growth habit, defects in vascular formation and reduced cell-cell adhesion properties in hypocotyl and cotyledon tissues. Secondary growth is enhanced in epc1 hypocotyl tissues and it is proposed that this results from the abnormal cell-cell adhesion within the cortical parenchyma cell layers. Loss of cell-cell contacts within cotyledon and leaf tissues is also proposed to account for vascular patterning defects and the fragile nature of epc1 tissues. The EPC1 protein thus plays a critical role during plant development in maintaining the integrity of organs via cell-cell adhesion, thereby providing mechanical strength and facilitating the movement of metabolites throughout the plant.
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ABSTRACT: Hedgehog (Hh) proteins act through both short-range and long-range signalling to pattern tissues during invertebrate and vertebrate development. The mechanisms allowing Hedgehog to diffuse over a long distance and to exert its long-range effects are not understood. Here we identify a new Drosophila gene, named tout-velu, that is required for diffusion of Hedgehog. Characterization of tout-velu shows that it encodes an integral membrane protein that belongs to the EXT gene family. Members of this family are involved in the human multiple exostoses syndrome, which affects bone morphogenesis. Our results, together with the previous characterization of the role of Indian Hedgehog in bone morphogenesis, lead us to propose that the multiple exostoses syndrome is associated with abnormal diffusion of Hedgehog proteins. These results show the existence of a new conserved mechanism required for diffusion of Hedgehog.Nature 08/1998; 394(6688):85-8. · 38.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A major issue in cell biology today is how distinct intracellular regions of the cell, like the Golgi Apparatus, maintain their unique composition of proteins and lipids. The cell differentially separates Golgi resident proteins from proteins that move through the organelle to other subcellular destinations. We set out to determine if we could distinguish these two types of transmembrane proteins using computational approaches. A new method has been developed to predict Golgi membrane proteins based on their transmembrane domains. To establish the prediction procedure, we took the hydrophobicity values and frequencies of different residues within the transmembrane domains into consideration. A simple linear discriminant function was developed with a small number of parameters derived from a dataset of Type II transmembrane proteins of known localization. This can discriminate between proteins destined for Golgi apparatus or other locations (post-Golgi) with a success rate of 89.3% or 85.2%, respectively on our redundancy-reduced data sets. See http://microarray.imb.uq.edu.au/golgi/Bioinformatics 09/2002; 18(8):1109-15. · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have used a modified CaMV 35S promoter to direct the expression of chimaeric genes encoding human serum albumin (HSA) in transgenic potato and tobacco plants. To secrete the protein, either the human prepro-sequence or the signal sequence from the extracellular tobacco protein PR-S was used. We demonstrate secretion of HSA with both types of signal sequences in transgenic leaf tissue and in suspension cultures. HSA produced in transgenic potato plants was purified to chromatographic homogeneity. N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis revealed that the processing of the precursor protein was dependent on the type of signal sequence. Expression of the human preproHSA gene lead to partial processing of the precursor and secretion of proHSA. Fusion of HSA to the plant PR-S presequence resulted in cleavage of the presequence at its natural site and secretion of correctly processed HSA that is indistinguishable from the authentic human protein.Bio/Technolgy 04/1990; 8(3):217-21.