This study examined the psychometric properties of the Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (OCS) of the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Participants included 48 youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), 41 with a non-OCD internalizing disorder, and 101 with an externalizing disorder. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 8-item OCS did not result in an adequate fit. Exploratory factor analysis identified a 1-factor model consisting of 6 items. Adequate internal consistency for the revised OCS (OCS-R) was obtained, and convergent validity was supported by moderate relationships with other OCD indices. The OCS-R had stronger associations with measures of OCD symptoms than with measures of depression and externalizing behaviors. Youth with OCD had significantly higher OCS-R scores than those with internalizing and externalizing disorders. Suggestions for cutoff scores are provided using results from ROC analyses. Overall, these findings suggest that the OCS-R is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of pediatric OCD.
"Higher scores on the CBCL-OCS reflect higher levels of anxiety, depression, obsessions and compulsions. While the CY-BOCS and the CBCL- OCS both have high validity for assessing symptom severity (Scahill et al., 1997; Storch et al., 2006), it is not known how closely the two tests assess the pattern of symptoms; for example, it has been suggested that the CY-BOCS has stronger associations to obsessional thinking and compulsive symptoms than to measures of general anxiety and depression (Scahill et al., 1997). While the OCD participants in the current study were medication naïve or taken off their medication for 24 h before scanning, the potential long-term effects of medication on white-matter development are unknown. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been useful in allowing us to examine the nature and extent of neuronal disruption associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, little is known about the underlying brain structure in OCD. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 16 children with OCD and 22 typically developing children. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used to compare the microstructure of white-matter tracts of OCD children with those of typically developing children. Correlation/regression analyses were also performed on each diffusion measure in order to detect any correlation of white-matter microstructure with scales of symptom severity. Analysis revealed significantly greater axial diffusivity in both the genu and the splenium of the corpus callosum in the control compared to the OCD group; these regions consecutively connect bilateral medial frontal regions and bilateral parietal regions. Secondly, correlation and voxel-based regression analysis revealed that lower axial diffusion correlated with greater severity of symptoms within the OCD group, as measured by the Child Behaviour Checklist-Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CBCL-OCS). The findings demonstrated a correlation of axial diffusivity with severity of symptoms in children with OCD. DTI may provide novel ways to help reveal the relationships between clinical symptoms and altered brain regions.
"Secondly, no specific diagnostic information on child OCD was available for our regular clinical outpatients and therefore a few patients with a formal OCD diagnosis might have been included. However, this potential bias is likely to underestimate the psychometric properties of the OCS scales, and our results are also very similar to those reported by other investigators and similar comparative studies (Nelson et al., 2001; Hudziak et al., 2006; Storch et al., 2006). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the discriminative power of various items as reported by parents in the OCS-scale extracted from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) problem scale and to compare findings with outcomes of previous validation studies. Children referred to a specialized child psychiatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) clinic (OCD group) (n=185) receiving a formal OCD diagnosis according to DSM IV criteria based on interviews with the Children's Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS) were compared to a sample recruited from regular child and adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics (CPO group) (n=177). Both samples were compared to a normative school sample (SS group) and all three groups were matched for age and gender. Thirty seven CBCL items, mostly representing core internalizing symptoms and parts of the thought problem scale as well as physical and sleep problems, were first identified. Ten of these items (including all discriminative items in previous validation studies) could distinguish children with OCD from CPO patients. In a subsequent analysis, the results of a logistic regression showed that four CBCL items, "Obsessions," "Fearful and Anxious," "Compulsions," and "Worries" remained significant predictors. These four OCS items and previously used CBCL OCS-scales were further examined by means of ROC-analysis showing that the "Obsessions" and "Compulsions" CBCL items were the strongest predictors. These two CBCL items performed well as screens for OCS symptoms in children and adolescents and the addition of similar CBCL items did not further increase sensitivity or specificity. It is suggested that parental responses on these two items could preferably be used as screen for OCD in children and adolescents in regular child psychiatric clinics.
"2%) (Hudziak et al. 2006). The CBCL-OCS also showed good reliability and validity in several other samples (Geller et al. 2006; Storch et al. 2006). A numerical value for the YASR-OCS is obtained by adding the scores on the relevant eight items (0, 1 or 2 per item), thus limiting the scale to a range between 0 and 16. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The contribution of genetic factors to obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms has not been examined using a large population-based sample of adults. Furthermore, the extent to which there are qualitative and quantitative differences in genetic architecture between men and women with OC symptoms has not been elucidated.
We obtained the Young Adult Self Report Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (YASR-OCS) from a group of 5893 monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, and 1304 additional siblings from the population-based Netherlands Twin Register. Structural equation modelling was used to decompose the variation in OC behaviour into genetic and environmental components and analyse quantitative and qualitative sex differences.
Familial resemblance was the same for DZ twins and non-twin siblings, which means that there was no evidence for a special twin environment. The same genetic risk factors for OC behaviour were expressed in men and women. Depending on the choice of fit index, we found small (39% for men and 50% for women) or no sex differences (47% for both men and women) in heritability. The remaining variance in liability was due to individual-specific environment.
OC behaviour showed a moderate heritability. At most, small quantitative sex differences were found in the genetic architecture of OC behaviour, and no qualitative sex differences.
Psychological Medicine 12/2007; 37(11):1635-44. DOI:10.1017/S0033291707000980 · 5.94 Impact Factor
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