Symptomatic urinary tract infections following voiding cystourethrography.
ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) following voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) while using prophylactic antibiotics. Medical records of 421 patients who underwent a VCUG during a period of 4 years were reviewed. Three hundred forty-nine had a VCUG following a febrile UTI, and 72 had the test for evaluation of hydronephrosis. All received prophylactic antibiotics and were evaluated within 7-10 days following the VCUG. One hundred seventy-two children (41%) had an abnormal VCUG. Seven of 421 children (1.7%) had symptoms suggestive of UTI. Two had culture negative pyuria; one had Escherichia Coli UTI, and four had Pseudomonas aeruginosa UTI. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the risk factors contributing to the development of UTI following VCUG were the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its severity (odds ratio [OR] 2.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.24, 2.83, p =0.001; and OR 2.32; 95% CI 2.05,2.62, p =0.04, respectively). The incidence of VCUG-induced UTI in children receiving prophylactic antibiotic therapy is low. There is a relatively high rate of Pseudomonas UTI, especially in children with moderate to severe reflux. We recommend that children with symptoms suggesting a UTI following a VCUG should be treated for Pseudomonas aeruginosa pending culture results.
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ABSTRACT: The Río de la Plata has a complex astronomical tide due to the effect of the shallow depth of this extensive estuary, the complicated geometry and bathymetry and the huge discharge of the rivers Paraná and Uruguay and therefore the simulation of the astronomical tide is complicated. This paper presents a Simplified Empirical Astronomical Tide model (SEAT) which overcomes the foreseen difficulties in a straightforward way. The program developed can be applied to other regions by only changing a file of the dynamic-link library. SEAT provides predictions, harmonic constants and the mean water level referred to the tidal datum used to calculate the prediction. The storage of information in the form of images reduces the size of the application. The equations considered for the prediction do not require the use of special computer processors. A personal computer with minimum hardware that supports Microsoft Framework 3.5 is suitable to run SEAT.Computers & Geosciences 07/2012; · 1.56 Impact Factor
- Journal of the Korean Society of Pediatric Nephrology 01/2008; 12(2).
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the meaning of ureter dilatation during ultrasonography (US) in infants for evaluating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). We retrospectively reviewed abdominal US images of infants who were diagnosed with urinary tract infection (UTI group) or only hydronephrosis without UTI (control group). Hydronephrosis (graded 0-4) and ureter dilatation (present or absent) were evaluated on each side with US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) within 3 months time interval with US was also reviewed and VUR was graded (0-5) on each side. Hydronephrosis, ureter dilatation, and VUR were then compared between the two groups. Four hundred and three infants (142 in the UTI group and 261 in the control group) were included and VCUG was performed in 129 infants (68 in UTI and 61 in control groups). VUR grades were not different between the two groups (p=0.252). Hydronephrosis grade was not related to VUR in either group (p>0.05). However, ureter dilatation had a significant relationship with VUR in the UTI group (p=0.015), even among patients with a high-grade VUR (p=0.005). Whereas, ureter dilatation was not associated with VUR in the control group (p=0.744). The relationship between ureter dilatation and VUR was different between the two groups for both all grades (p=0.014) and high-grade (p=0.004) VUR. Ureter dilatation had 66.7% sensitivity, 80.3% specificity, and 79.4% accuracy for evaluating high-grade VUR in the UTI group. Ureter dilatation on US can be a helpful finding for detecting VUR in infants with UTI, but not infants without UTI. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.European Journal of Radiology 12/2014; · 2.16 Impact Factor