STAT3-mediated transcription of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and c-IAP2 prevents apoptosis in polyamine-depleted cells.
ABSTRACT Activation of STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) plays a crucial role in cell survival and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of STAT3 signalling in the protection of polyamine-depleted intestinal epithelial cells against TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor-alpha)-induced apoptosis. Polyamine depletion by DFMO (alpha-difluoromethylornithine) caused phosphorylation of STAT3 at Tyr-705 and Ser-727. Phospho-Tyr-705 STAT3 was immunolocalized at the cell periphery and nucleus, whereas phospho-Ser-727 STAT3 was predominantly detected in the nucleus of polyamine-depleted cells. Sustained phosphorylation of STAT3 at tyrosine residues was observed in polyamine-depleted cells after exposure to TNF-alpha. Inhibition of STAT3 activation by AG490 or cell-membrane-permeant inhibitory peptide (PpYLKTK; where pY represents phospho-Tyr) increased the sensitivity of polyamine-depleted cells to apoptosis. Expression of DN-STAT3 (dominant negative-STAT3) completely eliminated the protective effect of DFMO against TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. Polyamine depletion increased mRNA and protein levels for Bcl-2, Mcl-1 (myeloid cell leukaemia-1) and c-IAP2 (inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2). Significantly higher levels of Bcl-2 and c-IAP2 proteins were observed in polyamine-depleted cells before and after 9 h of TNF-alpha treatment. Inhibition of STAT3 by AG490 and DN-STAT3 decreased Bcl-2 promoter activity. DN-STAT3 decreased mRNA and protein levels for Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and c-IAP2 in polyamine-depleted cells. siRNA (small interfering RNA)-mediated inhibition of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and c-IAP2 protein levels increased TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis. DN-STAT3 induced the activation of caspase-3 and PARP [poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase] cleavage in polyamine-depleted cells. These results suggest that activation of STAT3 in response to polyamine depletion increases the transcription and subsequent expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and IAP family proteins and thereby promotes survival of cells against TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Ramesh M Ray, May 14, 2015
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Article: STAT3-mediated transcription of Bcl-2, Mcl-1 and c-IAP2 prevents apoptosis in polyamine-depleted cells.
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ABSTRACT: Re-expression of E2 in Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) transformed tumor cells can induce apoptosis; however, some evidences also attribute an important role to E2 in sustaining tumorigenesis. Here, we studied the effects of TNF-α-mediated NF-kB activation on E2-induced senescence in HPV16-integrated SiHa cells. The results show that E2 inhibits endogenous E6 gene expression and sensitizes SiHa cells to TNF-α-induced NF-kB activation. Under this condition there was an increase in the expression of senescent proteins p53, p21, p27 and p16 and senescence associated-β-galactosidase activity indicating that TNF-α augments E2-mediated senescence. Re-expression of E2 expression with TNF-α treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic Bcl2 protein and other pro-survival genes like cyclin D1, survivin and hTERT. Concomitantly, E2+TNF-α combination increased the survival of SiHa cells by positive changes in viability, proliferation and colony formation. E2-induced apoptotic tendency shifted towards senescence in presence of TNF-α by arresting the cells at both G0/G1 and G2/M phases, thus enhancing cell survival.Another observation in this study is the significant up regulation of key senescence messaging factors regulated by NF-kB namely IL-6, IL-8, HMGA1 and HMGB1 in E2-transfected cells treated with TNF-α. Our data provide a mechanistic basis and a new insight for the role of TNF-α and E2 in linking cellular senescence, tumorigenesis and HPV re-infection.Bioscience Reports 01/2015; 35(1). DOI:10.1042/BSR20140160 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ongoing cancer research has shown that malignant tumour cells have highly disrupted signalling transduction pathways. In cancer cells, signalling pathways are altered to satisfy the demands of continuous proliferation and survival. The changes in signalling pathways supporting uncontrolled cell growth, termed as rewiring, can lead to dysregulation of cell fates e.g. apoptosis. Hence comparative analysis of normal and oncogenic signal transduction pathways may provide insights into mechanisms of cancer drug-resistance and facilitate the discovery of novel and effective anti-cancer therapies. Here we propose a hybrid modelling approach based on ordinary differential equation (ODE) and machine learning to map network rewiring in the apoptotic pathways that may be responsible for the increase of drug sensitivity of tumour cells in triple-negative breast cancer. Our method employs Genetic Algorithm to search for the most likely network topologies by iteratively generating simulated protein phosphorylation data using ODEs and the rewired network and then fitting the simulated data with real data of cancer signalling and cell fate. Most of our predictions are consistent with experimental evidence from literature. Combining the strengths of knowledge-driven and data-driven approaches, our hybrid model can help uncover molecular mechanisms of cancer cell fate at systems level.BMC Systems Biology 12/2015; 9 Suppl 1(1):S4. DOI:10.1186/1752-0509-9-S1-S4 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Quercetin, a flavonoid compound, has been reported to induce apoptosis in cancer cells, but its anti-inflammatory effects, which are also closely linked with apoptosis, if any, on non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) have not so far been critically examined. In this study, we tried to determine if quercetin had any demonstrable anti-inflammatory potential, which also could significantly contribute to inducing apoptosis in a NSCLC cell line, A549. In this context, several assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry and fluorimetry, were done. Gene expression was analyzed by using a western blot analysis. Results revealed that quercetin could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial depolarization by causing an imbalance in B-cell lymphoma 2/ Bcl2 Antagonist X (Bcl2/Bax) ratio and by down-regulating the interleukine-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (IL-6/STAT3) signaling pathway. An analysis of the data revealed that quercetin could block nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) activity at early hours, which might cause a down-regulation of the IL-6 titer, and the IL-6 expression, in turn, could inhibit p-STAT3 expression. Down-regulation of both the STAT3 and the NF-κB expressions might, therefore, cause down-regulation of Bcl2 activity because both are major upstream effectors of Bcl2. Alteration in Bcl2 responses might result in an imbalance in the Bcl2/Bax ratio, which could ultimately bring about mitochondria mediated apoptosis in A549 cells. Overall, the finding of this study indicates that a quercetin induced anti-inflammatory pathway in A549 cells appeared to make a significant contribution towards induction of apoptosis in NSCLC and, thus, may have a therapeutic use such as a strong apoptosis inducer in cancer cells.03/2015; 18(1):19-26. DOI:10.3831/KPI.2015.18.002