Endoscopic management of pediatric brain tumors.
ABSTRACT Primary endoscopic procedures for children with intraventricular brain tumors include endoscopic tumor biopsy and endoscopic tumor removal. The simultaneous treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) or endoscopic septostomy increases the appeal of a minimally invasive endoscopic approach.
Eighty-five patients who underwent endoscopic management of an intraventricular brain tumor were identified from a prospective database. Of these patients, 26 were younger than 21 years of age at the time of diagnosis. The surgical technique, its success rate, and patient outcome were assessed. Illustrative cases are used in this study to detail the procedure of endoscopic tumor biopsy and resection. Endoscopic tumor procedures were successful in 96% of cases (23 of 24 endoscopic tumor biopsy samples and both endoscopic tumor removals). Fourteen simultaneous procedures were performed to treat hydrocephalus successfully. There was no recognized morbidity from the surgical procedures.
Endoscopic surgery in children with intraventricular brain tumors is an effective and safe method for sampling of the lesion and, in select cases, its resection. This minimally invasive technique should be considered in situations in which the patient might thereby avoid a more conventional procedure, given the high rate of success and low morbidity associated with endoscopic management.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:: Controversy surrounds the fate of cyst remnants following endoscopic colloid cyst resection. OBJECTIVE:: Our study evaluated recurrence rates in patients with total endoscopic resection of colloid cysts versus those with coagulated cyst remnants. METHODS:: Sixty-five consecutive patients and 67 procedures for endoscopic resection of colloid cysts from 1995 to 2011 were reviewed. Degree of resection was based upon intra-operative assessment and post-operative MRI. Recurrence rates were compared between patients with complete resection versus coagulated cyst remnants. RESULTS:: Data analysis was performed on 56 patients and 58 procedures, with no follow-up in 9 patients. All patients had MR-defined complete resection. On intra-operative assessment, 9 procedures had coagulated remnants and 45 procedures had complete resection (4 data unknown). The overall recurrence rate was 6.89% (4/58), 33.3% (3/9) with cyst remnants and 2.2% (1/45) with total resection (p= 0.0124). Maximum follow-up was 144 months (mean = 40.4 mo). Mean follow-up was 66.0 months for cyst remnant cases, and 33.5 months for totally resected cases. There was no mortality or permanent morbidity. Transient morbidity included memory deficit (2), aseptic meningitis (1), and local wound infection (1). CONCLUSION:: Endoscopic colloid cyst resection results in a low overall recurrence rate. Immediate postoperative MRI was insufficient for assessing degree of resection, and was a poor predictor of recurrence. Ablation of cyst remnants rather than total removal is associated with a significantly higher rate of recurrence. The primary goal of endoscopic surgery should, therefore, be to remove all cyst contents and wall remnants.Neurosurgery 04/2013; · 3.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The most important limitations to endoscopic procedures in the ventricular system of the brain are due to the constraint of working inside a fluid. The evacuation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the ventricles is performed often in microsurgical interventions using a surgical microscope. This study aimed at studying the evacuation of CSF during neuroendoscopic surgery in animals while infusing gas to avoid ventricular collapse. Hydrocephalus was provoked in five adult New Zealand rabbits by intracisternal injection of kaolin. Endoscopic intervention was performed later; fluid was given as a continuous infusion at constant speed into the CSF for 3 min. In the next stage, CSF was evacuated from the ventricles, which were infused with gas at a stable rate for the same amount of time. The intracranial pressure (ICP) of the rabbits was recorded during both operations. The animals were sacrificed and the brain subjected to pathology examination at the end of the experiment. Mean ICP value in the rabbit ventricle was 19.1 while working in CSF and 17.6 when working in air. The difference by a paired test was statistically significant for each individual rabbit except one. The ICP measurement, however, was never lower than the ambient pressure, even while working in continuous gas infusion. No epidural or subdural hematomas were found at autopsy. Endoscopic surgery is feasible in a ventricular system that has been insufflated with gas after CSF has been evacuated. During the experiment, however, steadily diminishing ICP values were measured. As a result, new devices, such as small-flow insufflators able to perform sensitive pressure adjustments are needed.Child s Nervous System 09/2011; 28(1):73-7. · 1.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction. Though traditional microsurgical techniques are the gold standard for intraventricular tumor resection, the morbidity and invasiveness of microsurgical approaches to the ventricular system have galvanized interest in neuroendoscopic resection. We present a systematic review of the literature to provide a better understanding of the virtues and limitations of endoscopic tumor resection. Materials and Methods. 40 articles describing 668 endoscopic tumor resections were selected from the Pubmed database and reviewed. Results. Complete or near-complete resection was achieved in 75.0% of the patients. 9.9% of resected tumors recurred during the follow-up period, and procedure-related complications occurred in 20.8% of the procedures. Tumor size ≤ 2cm (P = 0.00146), the presence of a cystic tumor component (P < 0.0001), and the use of navigation or stereotactic tools during the procedure (P = 0.0003) were each independently associated with a greater likelihood of complete or near-complete tumor resection. Additionally, the complication rate was significantly higher for noncystic masses than for cystic ones (P < 0.0001). Discussion. Neuroendoscopic outcomes for intraventricular tumor resection are significantly better when performed on small, cystic tumors and when neural navigation or stereotaxy is used. Conclusion. Neuroendoscopic resection appears to be a safe and reliable treatment option for patients with intraventricular tumors of a particular morphology.Minimally invasive surgery. 01/2013; 2013:898753.