Endoscopic management of pediatric brain tumors.
ABSTRACT Primary endoscopic procedures for children with intraventricular brain tumors include endoscopic tumor biopsy and endoscopic tumor removal. The simultaneous treatment of hydrocephalus with endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) or endoscopic septostomy increases the appeal of a minimally invasive endoscopic approach.
Eighty-five patients who underwent endoscopic management of an intraventricular brain tumor were identified from a prospective database. Of these patients, 26 were younger than 21 years of age at the time of diagnosis. The surgical technique, its success rate, and patient outcome were assessed. Illustrative cases are used in this study to detail the procedure of endoscopic tumor biopsy and resection. Endoscopic tumor procedures were successful in 96% of cases (23 of 24 endoscopic tumor biopsy samples and both endoscopic tumor removals). Fourteen simultaneous procedures were performed to treat hydrocephalus successfully. There was no recognized morbidity from the surgical procedures.
Endoscopic surgery in children with intraventricular brain tumors is an effective and safe method for sampling of the lesion and, in select cases, its resection. This minimally invasive technique should be considered in situations in which the patient might thereby avoid a more conventional procedure, given the high rate of success and low morbidity associated with endoscopic management.
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ABSTRACT: This prospective study is based on a consecutive series of 20 patients with pineal region tumors who underwent minimally invasive preferential management. The purpose of this report is to discuss the role of neuroendoscopic procedures in the management of pineal region tumors. If the tumor markers alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were not detected in serum and there was significant ventricular dilation visualized on neuroimages, neuroendoscopic surgery was first applied for tumor debulking with tissue diagnosis and gross morphological analysis of the tumor and the intraventricular structures, followed by third ventriculostomy. Subsequent procedures were determined on the basis of verified individual tumors. For treatment of germinomas and pineoblastomas, if no tumor dissemination was confirmed by pre-, intra-, or postoperative findings, stereotactic radiotherapy or radiosurgery was performed after one course of chemotherapy with the ICE regimen (isofomid, cisplatin, and etoposide) and followed by two additional courses of chemotherapy. For treatment of malignant germ cell tumors, after extensive surgery, adjuvant chemotherapy with the ICE regimen was performed in three courses in all cases. Then radiotherapy was started using various methods, depending on the evidence of tumor dissemination. For treatment of teratomatous and neuroectodermal tumors other than pineoblastomas, extensive surgical removal was performed. As for adjuvant therapy, if the tumor was a low-grade glioma or if the patient was younger than 5 years of age, postoperative treatment did not include radiotherapy. If the tumor was a malignant teratoma or high-grade glioma, conventional focal radiotherapy was performed, followed by chemotherapy with ICE for 1 year. All but two treated patients had ventriculomegaly. Neuroendoscopic procedures were performed in six of 15 treated patients. Neuroendoscopic biopsy with tumor debulking offered enough material for tissue diagnosis, including immunohistochemical analysis and, in one case, revealed evidence of tumor dissemination undetectable on neuroimaging. With one exception, no shunt was required in any patient undergoing endoscopic third ventriculostomy. Stereotactic radiotherapy was performed in indicated cases. Favorable therapeutic outcomes were obtained in all cases of germinoma and pineoblastoma, with follow-up periods ranging from 24 months to 6.5 years. Our minimally invasive preferential regimen clarified the precise indication for neuroendoscopic procedures, and the majority of our patients with dilated ventricles and no evidence of tumor markers were treated satisfactorily with effective neuroendoscopic procedures as the initial procedure, avoiding unnecessary craniotomy and radiotherapy and promising excellent therapeutic outcomes. The treatment for malignant pineal region tumors remains a subject for further study.Journal of Neurosurgery 09/2000; 93(2):245-53. · 3.15 Impact Factor
Article: Endoscopic ventricular surgery.Pediatric Neurosurgery 19(3):127-34. · 0.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is still not determined which is the best surgical option for third ventricle colloid cysts. Since 1990, the authors have used a steerable fiberscope to remove colloid cysts in seven patients and have performed microsurgery via a transcallosal approach in eight patients. The two techniques were compared for operating time, length of hospital stay, incidence of complications, recurrence, and hydrocephalus, and days spent recuperating before return to work to determine if endoscopic removal of colloid cysts is a safe and effective alternative to microsurgery. Statistical analysis was adjusted for age, sex, and presenting symptoms. Microsurgical cases averaged 206 minutes of operating time whereas endoscopic cases averaged 127 minutes (p = 0.01). For combined days spent in the intensive care unit and on the ward, the patients averaged 9.5 days after microsurgery and 4 days after endoscopy (p = 0.05). Postoperative complications occurred in five of eight patients after microsurgery and in one of seven patients after endoscopy (p = 0.09); complications were transient and primarily related to short-term memory loss. In all patients, preoperative symptoms resolved and the cysts have not recurred. Postoperatively, one patient required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt after microsurgery but all patients were shunt-independent after endoscopy. Patients returned to work an average of 59 days after discharge following microsurgery compared with an average of 26 days after endoscopy (p = 0.05). Compared with transcallosal microsurgery for the removal of colloid cysts, these preliminary results show that a steerable endoscope reduced operating time and that patients spent fewer days in the hospital and returned to work sooner after endoscopy.Journal of Neurosurgery 09/1994; 81(2):174-8. · 3.15 Impact Factor