Challenges and opportunities of group therapy for adolescent substance abuse: a critical review.
ABSTRACT Group intervention has been the most commonly employed treatment modality for adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD). Evidence has been accumulating in support for the efficacy of diverse forms of group therapy that have been utilized with adolescents. It has been argued however, that aggregation of youths who display problem behavior into group interventions may, under some conditions, produce iatrogenic effects on all participants. This assertion known also as "deviancy training" and its presumed effect on treatment outcomes has created a barrier to progress regardless of the fact that it has not been tested or empirically supported in heterogeneous groups of adolescents treated for SUD. It is imperative to optimize group intervention while considering how to prevent, reduce and control, potentially iatrogenic effects associated with the aggregation of antisocial youths in heterogeneous groups. The main objective of this review is to address the challenges and opportunities regarding group treatment of adolescent SUD.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Little is known about what may distinguish effective and ineffective group interventions. Group motivational interviewing (MI) is a promising intervention for adolescent alcohol and other drug use; however, the mechanisms of change for group MI are unknown. One potential mechanism is change talk, which is client speech arguing for change. The present study describes the group process in adolescent group MI and effects of group-level change talk on individual alcohol and marijuana outcomes. Method: We analyzed 129 group session audio recordings from a randomized clinical trial of adolescent group MI. Sequential coding was performed with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC) and the CASAA Application for Coding Treatment Interactions software application. Outcomes included past-month intentions, frequency, and consequences of alcohol and marijuana use; motivation to change; and positive expectancies. Results: Sequential analysis indicated that facilitator open-ended questions and reflections of change talk increased group change talk. Group change talk was then followed by more change talk. Multilevel models accounting for rolling group enrollment revealed group change talk was associated with decreased alcohol intentions, alcohol use, and heavy drinking 3 months later; group sustain talk was associated with decreased motivation to change, increased intentions to use marijuana, and increased positive alcohol and marijuana expectancies. Conclusions: Facilitator speech and peer responses each had effects on change and sustain talk in the group setting, which were then associated with individual changes. Selective reflection of change talk in adolescent group MI is suggested as a strategy to manage group dynamics and increase behavioral change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 11/2014; 83(1). DOI:10.1037/a0038155 · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Success in substance abuse treatment is improved by problem recognition, desire to seek help, and readiness to engage in treatment, all of which are important aspects of motivation. Interventions that facilitate these at treatment induction for adolescents are especially needed. The purpose of this study is to assess the effectiveness of TRIP (Treatment Readiness and Induction Program) in promoting treatment motivation. Data represent 519 adolescents from 6 residential programs who completed assessments at treatment intake (Time 1) and 35 days after admission (Time 2). The design consisted of a comparison sample (n = 281) that had enrolled in treatment prior to implementation of TRIP (standard operating practice) and a sample of clients that had entered treatment after TRIP began and received standard operating practice enhanced by TRIP (n = 238). Repeated measures ANCOVAs were conducted using each Time 2 motivation scale as a dependent measure. Motivation scales were conceptualized as representing sequential stages of change. LISREL was used to test a structural model involving TRIP participation, gender, drug use severity, juvenile justice involvement, age, race-ethnicity, prior treatment, and urgency as predictors of the stages of treatment motivation. Compared to standard practice, adolescents receiving TRIP demonstrated greater gains in problem recognition, even after controlling for the other variables in the model. The model fit was adequate, with TRIP directly affecting problem recognition and indirectly affecting later stages of change (desire for help and treatment readiness). Future studies should examine which specific components of TRIP affect change in motivation.Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 10/2014; 50. DOI:10.1016/j.jsat.2014.10.002 · 3.14 Impact Factor
- Youth Substance Abuse in Canada, 01/2007: pages 38-44; Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.