Article

A randomized trial of two postexposure prophylaxis regimens to reduce mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in infants of untreated mothers

Perinatal HIV Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg South Africa.
AIDS (Impact Factor: 6.56). 09/2005; 19(12):1289-97. DOI: 10.1097/01.aids.0000180100.42770.a7
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Single-dose nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to mother and infant is widely used in resource-constrained settings for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. Where women do not access antenatal care or HIV testing, postexposure prophylaxis to the infant may be an important preventative strategy.
This multicentre, randomized, open-label clinical trial (October 2000 to September 2002) in South Africa compared single-dose NVP with 6 weeks of zidovudine (ZDV), commenced within 24 h of delivery among 1051 infants whose mothers had no prior antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 infection rates were ascertained at birth, and at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate HIV-1 infection rates in an intention-to-treat analysis.
Overall, 6 week and 12 week MTCT probability was 12.8% [95% confidence interval (CI),10.5-15.0] and 16.3% (95% CI,13.4-19.2), respectively. At 12 weeks, among infants who were not infected at birth, 24 (7.9%) infections occurred in the NVP arm and 41 (13.1%) in the ZDV arm (log rank P = 0.06). Using multivariate analysis, factors associated with infection following birth were ZDV use [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% CI,1.1-3.2; P = 0.032), maternal CD4 cell count < 500 x 10(6) cells/l (OR, 2.5; 95% CI,1.3-5.0; P = 0.007), maternal viral load > 50 000 copies/ml (OR, 3.6; 95% CI,2.0-6.2; P < 0.0001) and breastfeeding (OR, 2.2; 95% CI,1.3-3.8; P = 0.006).
A single-dose of NVP given to infants offers protection against HIV-1 infection and should be a strategy used in infants of mothers with untreated HIV infection.

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