A randomized trial of two postexposure prophylaxis regimens to reduce mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission in infants of untreated mothers
ABSTRACT Single-dose nevirapine (NVP) prophylaxis to mother and infant is widely used in resource-constrained settings for preventing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. Where women do not access antenatal care or HIV testing, postexposure prophylaxis to the infant may be an important preventative strategy.
This multicentre, randomized, open-label clinical trial (October 2000 to September 2002) in South Africa compared single-dose NVP with 6 weeks of zidovudine (ZDV), commenced within 24 h of delivery among 1051 infants whose mothers had no prior antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 infection rates were ascertained at birth, and at 6 and 12 weeks of age. Kaplan-Meier survival methods were used to estimate HIV-1 infection rates in an intention-to-treat analysis.
Overall, 6 week and 12 week MTCT probability was 12.8% [95% confidence interval (CI),10.5-15.0] and 16.3% (95% CI,13.4-19.2), respectively. At 12 weeks, among infants who were not infected at birth, 24 (7.9%) infections occurred in the NVP arm and 41 (13.1%) in the ZDV arm (log rank P = 0.06). Using multivariate analysis, factors associated with infection following birth were ZDV use [odds ratio (OR), 1.8; 95% CI,1.1-3.2; P = 0.032), maternal CD4 cell count < 500 x 10(6) cells/l (OR, 2.5; 95% CI,1.3-5.0; P = 0.007), maternal viral load > 50 000 copies/ml (OR, 3.6; 95% CI,2.0-6.2; P < 0.0001) and breastfeeding (OR, 2.2; 95% CI,1.3-3.8; P = 0.006).
A single-dose of NVP given to infants offers protection against HIV-1 infection and should be a strategy used in infants of mothers with untreated HIV infection.
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ABSTRACT: The prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of HIV is one of the great public health successes of the past 20 years. Much concerted research efforts and dedicated work have led to the achievement of very low rates of PMTCT of HIV in settings that can implement optimal prophylaxis. Though several implementation challenges remain, global elimination of pediatric HIV infection seems now more than ever to be an attainable goal. Often overlooked, the role of prophylaxis of the newborn is nevertheless a very important component of PMTCT. In this paper, we focus on the role of neonatal and infant prophylaxis, discuss mechanisms of protection, and present the clinical trial-generated evidence that led to the current recommendations for preventing infections in breastfed and non-breastfed infants. PMTCT of HIV should not end at birth; a continuum of care extending postpartum and postnatally is required to minimize the risk of new pediatric HIV infections.Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy 02/2015; 13(2):169-81. DOI:10.1586/14787210.2015.999667 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An estimated 260,000 children under the age of 15 years acquired HIV infection in 2012. As much as 42% of mother-to-child transmission is related to breastfeeding. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for mothers or infants has the potential to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breast milk.Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 10/2014; 10(10):CD011323. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD011323 · 5.70 Impact Factor