Thyroid cancer in the thyroid nodules evaluated by ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology.
ABSTRACT Thyroid nodule is common disorder in endocrine clinics. In Taiwan, thyroid ultrasonography with fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the first-line examination procedure. Data in large series on the incidence of thyroid malignancy presenting with thyroid nodules are lacking in this area. To determine the incidence of malignancy in thyroid nodules and compare the results with other populations, this investigation retrospectively reviewed 21,748 subjects who were examined in one medical center from January 1986 to December 1999. All patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography studies using a real-time ultrasonographic machine and a 10-MHz transducer. Fine-needle aspirations were made in the suspected thyroid nodule and stained using the Romanowsky- based method developed by Liu. By the end of 2002, some 3629 patients (16.7%) had thyroid nodules after surgical treatment. This group comprised 3011 women with a mean age of 41.5 +/- 13.9 years, and 618 men with a mean age of 45.7 +/- 14.9 years. Of patients undergoing surgical treatment, 2761 (76.1%) patients were diagnosed with benign nodules, 858 (23.6%) with malignant nodules, and 10 (0.3%) with atypical adenoma (7 follicular and 3 Hürthle cells). The percentages of thyroid malignancy in each age group revealed two peaks in both genders, namely in patients aged 20 to 29 years and in elderly patients (aged over 65 years). The peak age for thyroid malignancy in both genders was 41 to 60 years (male) and 21 to 40 years (female). The highest ratio of malignancy occurred in the elderly group (37.2%) receiving surgical treatment. In young patients (below 19 years) the percentage of malignancy was no greater than for the whole age group (20.2% versus 25.6%). Anaplastic and metastatic cancers affecting the thyroid were the main subjects in the age group. The present results demonstrated a younger distribution for well-differentiated thyroid cancer, particularly papillary thyroid carcinoma, compared to previous studies. This outcome may have resulted from the routine application of ultrasonography with FNAC in assessing the thyroid nodules, possibly helping to achieve more timely detection. The incidence of thyroid malignancy in young patients was no higher than in adults. Early detection of thyroid malignancy may be the main reason for this phenomenon. Male subjects with thyroid nodules displayed a higher incidence of this malignancy than females. Aging subjects with thyroid nodules suffered a higher rate of malignancy and were poorly differentiated. In conclusion, this retrospective large-series study demonstrated that 3.9% (858/21,748 cases) of patients with thyroid nodules showed histopathologically proven malignancy. Thyroid cancer detected by ultrasonography with FNAC occurred an average of 10 years younger than in prior studies.
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ABSTRACT: Thyroid incidentalomas detected by 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) have been reported in 1% to 4% of the population, with a risk of malignancy of 27.8% to 74%. We performed a retrospective review of FDG-avid thyroid incidentalomas in cancer screening subjects and patients with nonthyroid cancer. The risk of malignancy in thyroid incidentaloma and its association with the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in 18F-FDG PET/CT were evaluated to define the predictor variables in assessing risk of malignancy.
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ABSTRACT: This study was to investigate the clinical features and therapeutic outcomes of multifocal papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). A total of 2,418 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) patients had undergone thyroidectomy in one medical center between 1977 and 2010. There were 483 (20.0%) diagnosed with multifocal PTC. The percentage of multifocal PTC was higher in PTMC patients (22.0%) than in non-PTMC patients (19.5%). Demographic and clinical characteristics of PTMC and multifocal PTC in PTC patients were traced. Multifocal PTC patients presented with smaller tumors at an older age, and a higher percentage underwent total or complete thyroidectomy. These patients also showed a higher incidence of postoperative disease progression than did unifocal PTC patients. Comparison of 483 patients with multifocal PTMC and non-PTMC tumors showed a higher incidence of postoperative disease progression in patients with non-PTMC; otherwise, there was no statistical difference in disease-specific and total mortality between these two groups. In conclusion, the incidence of multifocal PTMC was not lower than that of non-PTMC, and postoperative therapies were necessary for both multifocal PTMC and non-PTMC patients.International Journal of Endocrinology 01/2013; 2013:809382. DOI:10.1155/2013/809382 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The incidence and histopathological characteristics of metastatic cancers to the thyroid (MCT) are different in various geographic areas. The aim of this study was to elucidate the clinical features of MCT, including histocytological diagnosis and therapeutic outcomes. A retrospective analysis of patients with thyroid cancer treated and followed up at the Chang Gung Medical Center in Linkou was performed. Among 3957 patients with thyroid cancer, a total of 56 patients with MCT were evaluated. Of them, 47 patients (83.9 %) were diagnosed with malignancy or suspected malignancy via fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid. Synchronous primary cancers were diagnosed in 44 of the patients with MCT. Of the MCT, metastasis of lung cancer to the thyroid was the leading category. Other primary sites of MCT were the head and neck, gastrointestinal tract, kidneys, breast, cervix, and unknown primary site. The mean 5-, 10-, 20-, and 60-month survival rates were 46.4, 32.1, 21.4, and 7.9 % for the patients. Patients with metachronous thyroid carcinoma had significantly better survival than patients with synchronous cancer. In conclusions, the incidence of MCT in patients with thyroid cancer is low; however, the prognosis of patients with MCT is poor, especially in patients diagnosed with synchronous primary tumors. In this study, MCT commonly originated in organs located near the thyroid, such as the lungs, head, and neck. Close monitoring of these malignancies may improve the prognosis of patients with MCT in the future.Endocrine Pathology 01/2015; 26(1). DOI:10.1007/s12022-015-9357-8 · 1.64 Impact Factor