Calcium dobesilate in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
ABSTRACT The incidence of diabetic retinopathy is still increasing in developed countries. Tight glycemic control and laser therapy reduce vision loss and blindness, but do not reverse existing ocular damage and only slow the progression of the disease. New pharmacologic agents that are currently under development and are specifically directed against clearly defined biochemical targets (i.e. aldose reductase inhibitors and protein kinase C-beta inhibitors) have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in clinical trials. In contrast, calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate), which was discovered more than 40 years ago and is registered for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in more than 20 countries remains, to our knowledge, the only angioprotective agent that reduces the progression of this disease. An overall review of published studies involving calcium dobesilate (CLS 2210) depicts a rather 'non-specific' compound acting moderately, but significantly, on the various and complex disorders that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that calcium dobesilate is a potent antioxidant, particularly against the highly damaging hydroxyl radical. In addition, it improves diabetic endothelial dysfunction, reduces apoptosis, and slows vascular cell proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oral calcium dobesilate (Doxium) on macular thickness in clinically significant macular edema (CSME) Methods: Overall, 71 eyes of 40 patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and clinically significant macular edema were included. All patients were received laser treatment for macular edema. Coherence optical tomography was used to determine the retinal thickness. Patients were randomized into two groups: group A received three Doxium capsule daily and group B received three placebo capsule daily for six months. Results: The mean macular thickness before and after treatment in the group A was 340 and 257 micrometers respectively (24.5% reduced), and in the group B was 336 micrometers and 263 micrometers respectively (21.5% reduced). Macular thickness significantly decreased after treatment in both groups and the reduction in group A is higher but the difference of reduction between the two groups was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Conclusion: In respect to the effect of adding oral Doxium to Laser Photocoagulation on the macular thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema, this study showed no statistically significant difference between Doxium and placebo.Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 06/2014; 4(4):375-378.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: To determine the benefits of calcium dobesilate (CaD) administration on endothelial function and inflammatory status in patients with diabetic retinopathy through measurement of serum levels of endothelin-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized clinical trial, 90 patients with either severe nonproliferative or proliferative diabetic retinopathy and with blood glucose level of 120-200 mg/dl were randomly allocated to treatment with either CaD tablets (500 mg daily) or placebo for 3 months. Visual acuity, intraocular pressure, and macular status were performed before the study. The serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP were evaluated in both groups before and at the third month of the trial. RESULTS: The median serum level of hsCRP significantly differed between the groups 3 months following the CaD or placebo administration (2.2 mg/l in the CaD group versus 3.7 mg/l in the placebo group, p=0.01). The mean endothelin-1 serum level was 0.69±0.32 pg/ml in the CaD group and 0.86±0.30 pg/ml in the placebo group (p=0.01). Furthermore, in the CaD group, the serum levels of both endothelin-1 and hsCRP were significantly decreased 3 months after administration of CaD (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Administration of the CaD in the patients with diabetic retinopathy may reduce the serum levels of endothelin-1 and hsCRP. This might imply amelioration of the endothelial function and inflammatory status following CaD therapy in these patients.Molecular vision 01/2013; 19:62-68. · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The realisation that targeting agents in the vitreous is an effective approach to treating patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has increased awareness that changes in the composition/bioactivity of the vitreous is a contributor to the pathogenesis of DR. The overall goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that the vitreous has regression activity, and that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) contributes to such activity. LPA is a bioactive phospholipid present in many biological fluids, and has been recently appreciated for its ability to promote regression of blood vessels. METHODS: Vitreous-mediated regression was monitored on tubes organised from primary retinal endothelial cells or neovessels that sprouted from retinal explants. LPA was quantified radioenzymatically. RESULTS: Bovine and human vitreous promoted regression of retinal explant vessels and of tubes organised from primary retinal endothelial cells. LPA was a substantial component of this regression activity. Comparing the regression activities of vitreous from patients with different stages of DR revealed that, as patients developed proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), vitreous lost its ability to promote regression, even though the amount of LPA did not change. The underlying mechanism was a PDR-vitreous-mediated insensitivity to LPA, which could be overcome pharmacologically. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that a decline in the responsiveness to regression factors such as LPA, which are naturally present in the vitreous, contributes to the pathogenesis of PDR.Diabetologia 03/2013; · 6.49 Impact Factor