Calcium dobesilate in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy.
ABSTRACT The incidence of diabetic retinopathy is still increasing in developed countries. Tight glycemic control and laser therapy reduce vision loss and blindness, but do not reverse existing ocular damage and only slow the progression of the disease. New pharmacologic agents that are currently under development and are specifically directed against clearly defined biochemical targets (i.e. aldose reductase inhibitors and protein kinase C-beta inhibitors) have failed to demonstrate significant efficacy in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in clinical trials. In contrast, calcium dobesilate (2,5-dihydroxybenzenesulfonate), which was discovered more than 40 years ago and is registered for the treatment of diabetic retinopathy in more than 20 countries remains, to our knowledge, the only angioprotective agent that reduces the progression of this disease. An overall review of published studies involving calcium dobesilate (CLS 2210) depicts a rather 'non-specific' compound acting moderately, but significantly, on the various and complex disorders that contribute to diabetic retinopathy. Recent studies have shown that calcium dobesilate is a potent antioxidant, particularly against the highly damaging hydroxyl radical. In addition, it improves diabetic endothelial dysfunction, reduces apoptosis, and slows vascular cell proliferation.
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ABSTRACT: Apoptosis of retinal endothelial cells and pericytes is postulated to contribute to the development of retinopathy in diabetes. The goal of this study is to investigate diabetes-induced activation of retinal caspase-3, an apoptosis executer enzyme, in retina, and examine the effects of antioxidants on the activation. Caspase-3 activation was determined in the retina of alloxan diabetic rats (2-14 months duration) and in the isolated retinal capillary cells (endothelial cells and pericytes) by measuring cleavage of caspase-3 specific fluorescent substrate, and cleavage of caspase-3 holoenzyme and poly (ADP ribosyl) polymerase. Effect of antioxidants on the activation of caspase-3 was determined by feeding a group of diabetic rats diet supplemented with a comprehensive mixture of antioxidants, including Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, N-acetyl cysteine, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and selenium for 2-14 months, and also under in vitro conditions by incubating isolated retinal capillary cells with antioxidants with wide range of actions. Caspase-3 was activated in the rat retina at 14 months of diabetes (P < 0.05 vs. normal), but not at 2 months of diabetes, and administration of antioxidants for the entire duration inhibited this activation. In the isolated retinal capillary cells incubated in 25 mM glucose medium, caspase-3 activity was increased by 50% compared to the cells incubated in 5 mM glucose (P < 0.02), and antioxidants or caspase-3 inhibitor inhibited this increase. Our results suggest that increased oxidative stress in diabetes is involved in the activation of retinal caspase-3 and apoptosis of endothelial cells and pericytes. Antioxidants might be inhibiting the development of diabetic retinopathy by inhibiting microvascular apoptosis.Free Radical Research 09/2002; 36(9):993-9. · 3.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe the short-term clinical outcomes for a cohort of patients undergoing first photocoagulation treatment for proliferative retinopathy or maculopathy in the United Kingdom. Nine-month follow-up of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists' national audit of laser treatment for diabetic retinopathy. For eyes with maculopathy, 9.2% had had a deterioration in visual acuity equivalent to a doubling of the visual angle and 3.3% of eyes had a visual acuity of less than 6/60 at follow-up. There had been an improvement in the macular oedema or exudate in 64.6% and 77.3% respectively. Prognostic factors for a poorer visual acuity at follow-up were worse visual acuity at baseline, the presence of diffuse (vs focal) oedema and grid (vs focal) treatment. For eyes with proliferative retinopathy, the retinal neovascularisation had regressed fully in 50.8% of cases, whilst there had been no change or a deterioration in 10.3%. A visual acuity of less than 6/60 at follow-up was present in 8.6% of eyes. There was a poor morphological outcome at follow-up (as defined by rubeosis, new tractional detachment or having had a vitrectomy) in 7.2%. Risk factors for poor morphological outcome were the presence of 'high-risk characteristics', female sex and the presence of concurrent maculopathy at baseline. Regression of neovascularisation was associated with greater areas of retinal ablation at the initial treatment session. Although some eyes with proliferative retinopathy appeared to be undertreated initially compared with DRS and ETDRS protocols, some of these eyes did respond to lower amounts of treatment. For maculopathy, poorer outcome was related to worse visual acuity at baseline, diffuse (vs focal) maculopathy, and grid treatment. For proliferative retinopathy, poorer outcome was related to 'high-risk characteristics' and coexistence of maculopathy at baseline, and improvement was related to larger areas of ablation. The relationship of poor outcome with worse initial disease argues for earlier detection of retinopathy.Eye 05/1999; 13 ( Pt 2):151-9. · 1.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes mellitus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality derived from long-term microvascular and macrovascular complications of chronic hyperglycemia. The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have clearly shown the benefits of intensive glycemic control for preventing or delaying the development and progression of long-term complications. However, intensive glycemic control, particularly with insulin therapy, is associated with an increased incidence of hypoglycemia, which is the major barrier to the implementation of intensive treatment from the physician's and patient's perspective. Avoiding the use of intensive treatment most often precludes optimal glycemic control. Some of the many underlying causes of hypoglycemia are defective and deficient counterregulatory responses, relative hyperinsulinization owing to a missed meal, excessive or unplanned exercise, erroneous insulin dosages, excessive insulinotropic effects of some oral secretagogues, and the failure of traditional insulin preparations to simulate the physiologic patterns of endogenous basal insulin secretion found in nondiabetic individuals. Additionally, patient involvement is critical to intensive glycemic control and should involve frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), adherence to treatment regimens, and knowledge of the interrelationship among physical activity, diet, and insulin. This review summarizes the current knowledge on hypoglycemia with a focus on the improvements in insulin therapy (i.e., the mealtime and basal insulin analogs) that may produce more normal physiologic insulin profiles with an attendant lower risk of hypoglycemia than that currently seen in clinical practice.Journal of Diabetes and its Complications 01/2004; 18(1):60-8. · 2.06 Impact Factor