Cytokine network in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
ABSTRACT Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a relentlessly progressive lung disorder despite four decades of interest in its pathogenesis and treatment. It is important to emphasize that IPF is a progressive and irreversible illness, and, until now, there has been no available drug that has been capable of modifying the progressive natural course of IPF and its usual terminal outcome. Although the pathogenesis of this disease is complex and poorly understood, growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, and regulators of apoptosis have all been implicated in its pathogenesis and disease progression. This review summarizes the evidence implicating these molecules as primarily involved in the pathogenesis of IPF such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors, with particular emphasis to novel interactions. The elucidation of mediators that orchestrate this aberrant tissue repair will allow the development of novel interventions to treat this devastating disorder.
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ABSTRACT: Current dogma supports the concept that the expression of a disease-inducing signature cytokine phenotype is important to the maintenance stage of chronic lung disorders. This cytokine phenotype has been characterized as a polarization toward type 2 cytokines, which are profibrotic and immunoregulatory. The biology of this latter activity could mechanistically explain pathogen-induced exacerbation of chronic lung inflammation, as a skewed cytokine profile in the lung alters dendritic cell function, activates fibroblasts, and facilitates a subsequent "second hit" by an infectious pathogen. In this setting, cytokine biology is also linked to Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in the maintenance of lung immunity, as the activity of this receptor-ligand system by both leukocytes and stromal cells is likely an important component of disease chronicity. The participation of dendritic cells via TLRs in chronic lung disease could facilitate communication circuits established between antigen-presenting cells and lymphocytes. Data suggest that TLR activation via myeloid differentiation factor 88 adaptor protein leads to the induction of a Notch ligand known as Delta-like-4 on dendritic cells that activate the Notch receptor on T cells, promoting a helper T-cell type 1 cytokine response. It is likely that the evolution of host defense signals designed to recognize patterns emitted from a hostile microbial environment may now be superimposed on adaptive immunity and provide the underpinning to support the maintenance of chronic lung disease.Proceedings of the American Thoracic Society 01/2008; 4(8):635-41.
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ABSTRACT: The binding of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) with its ligands begins a sustained period of cellular activation and inflammatory signal amplification in different tissues and diseases. This binding could represent an as yet uninvestigated pathway of inflammatory reaction in the lung, where the presence of the receptor has been largely documented and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced by nonenzymatic glycation and oxidation of proteins and lipids, driven by smoke and pollutants exposure or inflammatory stress. We immunohistochemically assessed the expression of RAGE and of its major proinflammatory ligands, N-epsilon-carboxy-methyl-lysine, S100B and S-100A12 in normal lung and in non-neoplastic lung disorders including smoke-related airway disease, granulomatous inflammation, postobstructive damage and usual interstitial pneumonia. In normal lung low expression of the receptor was observed in bronchiolar epithelia, type II pneumocytes, macrophages and some endothelia. S100A12 and S100B were expressed, respectively, in granulocytes and in dendritic cells. Carboxy-methyl-lysine was present in bronchiolar epithelia and macrophages. In all pathological conditions associated with inflammation and lung damage overexpression of both the receptor and of AGEs was observed in bronchiolar epithelia, type II alveolar pneumocytes, alveolar macrophages and endothelia. RAGE overexpression was more evident in epithelia associated with inflammatory cell aggregates. Fibroblasts in usual interstitial pneumonia expressed both the receptor and AGEs. The number of S100A12 and S100B immunoreactive inflammatory cells was variable. S100A12 was also expressed in mononuclear inflammatory cells and in activated epithelia. The activation of the inflammatory pathway controlled by the RAGE is not specific of a single lung disease, however, it may be relevant as a nonspecific pathway of sustained inflammation in lung tissue, and on this basis therapeutic approaches based on receptor blockage can be envisaged.Modern Pathology 12/2006; 19(11):1437-45. · 5.25 Impact Factor