Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-beta acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells.
ABSTRACT AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a kinase cascade that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK requires phosphorylation of threonine 172 (T172) within the T loop region of the catalytic alpha subunit. Recently, LKB1 was shown to activate AMPK. Here we show that AMPK is also activated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Overexpression of CaMKKbeta in mammalian cells increases AMPK activity, whereas pharmacological inhibition of CaMKK, or downregulation of CaMKKbeta using RNA interference, almost completely abolishes AMPK activation. CaMKKbeta isolated from rat brain or expressed in E. coli phosphorylates and activates AMPK in vitro. In yeast, CaMKKbeta expression rescues a mutant strain lacking the three kinases upstream of Snf1, the yeast homolog of AMPK. These results demonstrate that AMPK is regulated by at least two upstream kinases and suggest that AMPK may play a role in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways.
SourceAvailable from: Traci Marin[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase that is activated by cellular perturbations associated with ATP depletion or stress. While AMPK modulates the activity of a variety of targets containing a specific phosphorylation consensus sequence, the number of AMPK targets and their influence over cellular processes is currently thought to be limited. We queried the human and the mouse proteomes for proteins containing AMPK phosphorylation consensus sequences. Integration of this database into Gaggle software facilitated the construction of probable AMPK-regulated networks based on known and predicted molecular associations. In vitro kinase assays were conducted for preliminary validation of 12 novel AMPK targets across a variety of cellular functional categories, including transcription, translation, cell migration, protein transport, and energy homeostasis. Following initial validation, pathways that include NAD synthetase 1 (NADSYN1) and protein kinase B (AKT2) were hypothesized and experimentally tested to provide a mechanistic basis for AMPK regulation of cell migration and maintenance of cellular NAD(+) concentrations during catabolic processes. This study delineates an approach that encompasses both in silico procedures and in vitro experiments to produce testable hypotheses for AMPK regulation of cellular processes.BMC Systems Biology 12/2015; 9(1):156. DOI:10.1186/s12918-015-0156-0 · 2.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has emerged as a key regulator of energy balance at cellular and whole-body levels. Due to the involvement in multiple signaling pathways, AMPK efficiently controls ATP-consuming/ATP-generating processes to maintain energy homeostasis under stress conditions. Loss of the kinase activity or attenuation of its expression leads to a variety of metabolic disorders and increases cancer risk. In this review, we discuss recent findings on the structure of AMPK, its activation mechanisms, as well as the consequences of its targets in regulation of metabolism. Particular attention is given to low-molecular-weight compounds that activate or inhibit AMPK; the perspective of therapeutic use of such modulators in treatment of several common diseases is discussed.Biochemistry (Moscow) 02/2015; 80(2):127-144. DOI:10.1134/S0006297915020017 · 1.35 Impact Factor
Article: Mitophagy and heart failure[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cardiac mitochondria are responsible for generating energy in the form of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and are crucial for cardiac function. Mitochondrial dysfunction is a major contributor to loss of myocytes and development of heart failure. Myocytes have quality control mechanisms in place to ensure a network of functional mitochondria. Damaged mitochondria are degraded by a process called mitochondrial autophagy, or mitophagy, where the organelle is engulfed by an autophagosome and subsequently delivered to a lysosome for degradation. Evidence suggests that mitophagy is important for cellular homeostasis, and reduced mitophagy leads to inadequate removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. In this review, we discuss the regulation of mitophagy and the emerging evidence of the cardioprotective role of mitophagy. We also address the prospect of therapeutically targeting mitophagy to treat patients with cardiovascular disease.Journal of Molecular Medicine 01/2015; 93(3). DOI:10.1007/s00109-015-1254-6 · 4.74 Impact Factor