Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β acts upstream of AMP-activated protein kinase in mammalian cells
ABSTRACT AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a kinase cascade that plays a pivotal role in energy homeostasis. Activation of AMPK requires phosphorylation of threonine 172 (T172) within the T loop region of the catalytic alpha subunit. Recently, LKB1 was shown to activate AMPK. Here we show that AMPK is also activated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Overexpression of CaMKKbeta in mammalian cells increases AMPK activity, whereas pharmacological inhibition of CaMKK, or downregulation of CaMKKbeta using RNA interference, almost completely abolishes AMPK activation. CaMKKbeta isolated from rat brain or expressed in E. coli phosphorylates and activates AMPK in vitro. In yeast, CaMKKbeta expression rescues a mutant strain lacking the three kinases upstream of Snf1, the yeast homolog of AMPK. These results demonstrate that AMPK is regulated by at least two upstream kinases and suggest that AMPK may play a role in Ca(2+)-mediated signal transduction pathways.
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ABSTRACT: AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), whose activity is a critical determinant of cell health, serves a fundamental role in integrating extracellular and intracellular nutrient information into signals that regulate various metabolic processes. Despite the importance of AMPK, its specific roles within the different intracellular spaces remain unresolved, largely due to the lack of real-time, organelle-specific AMPK activity probes. Here, we present a series of molecular tools that allows for the measurement of AMPK activity at the different subcellular localizations and that allows for the rapid induction of AMPK inhibition. We discovered that AMPKα1, not AMPKα2, was the subunit that preferentially conferred spatial specificity to AMPK, and that inhibition of AMPK activity at the mitochondria was sufficient for triggering cytosolic ATP increase. These findings suggest that genetically encoded molecular probes represent a powerful approach for revealing the basic principles of the spatiotemporal nature of AMPK regulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Cell Reports 04/2015; 12(4). DOI:10.1016/j.celrep.2015.03.057 · 7.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the previous study, we demonstrated that fluoxetine (FLX) regulated lipogenic and lipolytic genes to promote hepatic lipid accumulation. On this basis, underlying mechanisms were investigated by focusing on the intracellular signaling transduction in the present study using primary mouse hepatocytes. The expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes was evaluated with the application of specific activators and inhibitors. Activation status of respective signaling pathway and the lipid accumulation in hepatocytes were analyzed. We provided evidence that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator AICAR (5-aminoimidazole-4- carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside) significantly suppressed the increased expression of representative lipogenesis-related genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS), by FLX, while increased the repressed expression of lipolysis-related genes, carboxylesterases. In the meanwhile, FLX regulated the above genes in the same way as AMPK inhibitor Compound C did. Furthermore, AICAR inhibited the proteolytic activation of SREBP1c induced by FLX, resulting in the decreased level of nuclear SREBP1c. Further studies demonstrated that FLX significantly suppressed the phosphorylation of AMPK and subsequent phosphorylation of ACC, following the inhibited phosphorylation and nuclear export of liver kinase B1 (LKB1). As a functional analysis, FLX-induced lipid accumulation in hepatocytes was repeatedly abolished by AICAR. In conclusion, FLX-induced hepatic lipid accumulation is mediated by the suppression of AMPK signaling pathway. The findings not only provide new insight into the understanding of the mechanisms for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors-mediated dyslipidemia effects, but also suggest a novel therapeutic target to interfere.The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology 08/2014; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.biocel.2014.07.019 · 4.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: AMPK is known to be activated by oxidative stress. Addition of glucose oxidase to cells generates H2O2 at a constant rate that is opposed by enzymic degradation, providing a good model for physiological oxidative stress. AMPK activation by glucose oxidase correlated with increases in cellular AMP:ATP and was greatly reduced in cells expressing an AMP-insensitive AMPK mutant, although a small degree of activation remained. The effects of increased AMP were partly due to inhibition of Thr172 dephosphorylation. These results suggest that changes in adenine nucleotides, rather than direct oxidative modification, are the major drivers of AMPK activation during oxidative stress.FEBS Letters 07/2014; 588(18). DOI:10.1016/j.febslet.2014.07.025 · 3.34 Impact Factor