Article

Renalase, a catecholamine-metabolizing hormone from the kidney.

Medical Faculty of the Charite, Franz Volhard Clinic, HELIOS Klinikum-Berlin, Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin, Germany.
Cell Metabolism (Impact Factor: 14.62). 07/2005; 1(6):358-60. DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2005.05.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT A novel flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent amine oxidase that is secreted by the kidney, circulates in the blood, and modulates cardiac function and systemic blood pressure has recently been discovered. Renalase appears to be a hormone that metabolizes catecholamines, and its discovery will facilitate our understanding of sympathetic regulation.

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    ABSTRACT: Renalase is a recently described enzyme secreted by the kidney into both plasma and urine, where it was suggested to degrade catecholamines contributing to blood pressure control. While there is a controversy regarding the relationship between renal function and plasma renalase levels, there is virtually no data in humans on plasma renalase activity as well as on both urine renalase levels and activity. We prospectively examined the time course of plasma and urine renalase levels and activity in 26 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving a cadaver kidney transplant (cadaver kidney recipients [CKR]) before surgery and during the recovery of renal function up to day 90 post transplant. The relationship with sympathetic and renal dopaminergic activities was also evaluated. The recovery of renal function in CKR closely predicted decreases in plasma renalase levels (r = 0.88; P < 0.0001), urine renalase levels (r = 0.75; P < 0.0001) and urine renalase activity (r = 0.56; P < 0.03), but did not predict changes in plasma renalase activity (r = -0.02; NS). Plasma norepinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = 0.64, P < 0.002) as well as with urine renalase levels and activity (r = 0.47 P < 0.02; r = 0.71, P < 0.0005, respectively) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = -0.57, P < 0.002). By contrast, plasma epinephrine levels positively correlated with plasma renalase activity (r = 0.67, P < 0.0001) and negatively correlated with plasma renalase levels (r = -0.62, P < 0.003). A significant negative relationship was observed between urine dopamine output and urine renalase levels (r = -0.48; P < 0.03) but not with urine renalase activity (r = -0.33, NS). We conclude that plasma and urine renalase levels closely depend on renal function and sympathetic nervous system activity. It is suggested that epinephrine-mediated activation of circulating renalase may occur in renal transplant recipients with good recovery of renal function. The increase in plasma renalase activity observed in ESRD patients and renal transplant recipients can be explained on the basis of reduced inhibition of the circulating enzyme.
    Experimental Biology and Medicine 03/2014; · 2.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Renalase, a monoamine oxidase derived from the kidney, can degrade catecholamine (CA) and regulate blood pressure as well as cardiac function. To investigate the changes of serum renalase levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and examine the correlation with other features of T2DM. Methods: Seventy-five patients with T2DM and 13 healthy volunteers were studied. The levels of serum renalase and CA were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Several other biochemical and clinical parameters were measured. Results: Serum levels of CA and renalase as well as renalase/CA (R/C) ratio in the T2DM group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p 0.05). There was a highly positive correlation between the levels of serum renalase and CA (r = 0.795, p 0.001). The levels of serum renalase were positively correlated with systolic blood pressure (r = 0.217, p = 0.042) and serum creatinine (SCr) (r = 0.295, p = 0.007), and negatively correlated with eGFR (r = −0.222, p = 0.044). The R/C ratio was positively correlated with SCr (r = 0.347, p = 0.001) as well as homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (IR) HOMA2-% S (r = 0.340, p = 0.037). Conclusion: Serum levels of renalase and CA were highly correlated in patients with T2DM. The levels of serum renalase and R/C ratio of T2DM patients were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects and appeared correlated with changes in blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate and IR.
    Renal Failure 01/2014; 36(4). · 0.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The function of the autonomic nervous system is based on reciprocal interaction between the sympathetic and parasympathetic parts, most frequently in the form of antagonistic action on target organs. The main mediators of the sympathetic nervous system in the effectors part are catecholamines (CA), which are involved in various physiological processes. Moreover, CA also has a profound effect on the kidneys, being factors that impact on renal haemodynamics, and have been reported to be altered in pathological disorders, e.g. extracellular volume expression, hypertension and cardiovascular complications. The increased sympathetic nerve activity, at least in part, can explain the raised in plasma CA observed in chronic kidney diseases. Furthermore, plasma CA levels in ureamic patients cannot be considered a reliable index of sympathetic activity, due to existence of many factors which may affect their values. In addition, CA released into the circulation, as one of many substances, may penetrate across the cellular membranes of erytrocytes (RBC). Taking these observations together, the aim of the presented study was to investigate for the first time the plasma and erythrocyte relationship of catecholamines in haemodialysis. The studies were performed among 37 haemodialysed patients who were inhabitants of the Lublin commune. Plasma and intracellular concentration of CA were measured prior to and following haemodialysis by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The results suggest that RBC are able to accumulate CA at the stage of terminal renal failure; in addition, the levels of adrenaline and dopamine in RBC depend on the accumulation of urea in plasma. It was also found that the dynamic changes in concentration of RBC adrenaline are an independent predictor of mortality in haemodialysis patients.
    Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine: AAEM 09/2014; 21(3):562-6. · 3.06 Impact Factor

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