Neutral endopeptidase 24.11 (NEP) is a 90-110 kDa cell surface cell surface peptidase that is normally expressed by numerous tissues, including prostate, kidney, intestine, endometrium, adrenal glands and lung. This enzyme cleaves peptide bonds on the amino side of hydrophobic amino acids and inactivates a variety of physiologically active peptides, including atrial natriuretic factor, substance P, bradykinin, oxytocin, Leu- and Met-enkephalins, neurotensin, bombesin, endothelin-1, and bombesin-like peptides. NEP reduces the local concentration of peptide available for receptor binding and signal transduction. Loss or decreases in NEP expression have been reported in a variety of malignancies. Reduced NEP may promote peptide-mediated proliferation by allowing accumulation of higher peptide concentrations at the cell surface, and facilitate the development or progression of neoplasia. We have used prostate cancer as model in which to study the involvement of NEP in malignancy. Using a variety of experimental approaches, including recombinant NEP, cell lines expressing wild-type and mutant NEP protein, and cell lines expressing NEP protein with a mutated cytoplasmic domain, we have examined the effects of NEP on cell migration and cell survival. We have shown that the effects of NEP are mediated by its ability to catalytically inactivate substrates such as bombesin and endothelin-1, but also through direct protein-protein interaction with other protein such as Lyn kinase [which associates with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K) resulting in NEP-Lyn-PI3-K protein complex], ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, and the PTEN tumor suppressor protein. We review the mechanisms of NEP's tumor suppressive action and how NEP loss contributes to tumor progression.
"Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) is a zinc-dependent, cell surface metallopeptidase that is involved in the cleavage and inactivation of certain peptide hormones and is important for signal transduction, including transduction of enkephalins, bombesin, and substrate P.5,6 Under nonpathological conditions, NEP is widely distributed in the epithelial cells of the kidney, liver, stomach, intestine, breast, lung, and prostate gland.7 Under pathological conditions, NEP has been demonstrated to play a crucial role in migration, survival, and apoptosis of various cancer cells.8 NEPs’ diagnostic and prognostic values were originally discovered in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with elaboration of rabbit antisera against leukemic cells.9 "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expression of neutral endopeptidase (NEP) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) proteins, and the clinical significance of the two proteins in patients with intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (IHCC).
Expression patterns and subcellular localizations of NEP and DPP IV proteins in 186 primary IHCC and 60 noncancerous liver tissue specimens were detected by immunohistochemistry.
Both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins in IHCC tissues were significantly higher than those in noncancerous liver tissues (both P<0.001). Of 186 patients with IHCC, 128 (68.82%) highly expressed both NEP and DPP IV proteins. In addition, the coexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins was significantly associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.009), positive lymph node metastasis (P=0.016) and distant metastasis (P=0.013), and the presence of recurrence (P=0.027). Moreover, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that IHCC patients with high NEP expression, high DPP IV expression, and combined overexpression of NEP and DPP IV proteins all had poorer overall survival and early recurrence after surgery. Furthermore, Cox analysis suggested that NEP expression, DPP IV expression, and combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins were all independent prognostic markers for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in patients with IHCC.
Our data suggest, for the first time, that both the expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may be upregulated in human IHCC tissues and the combined expression of NEP and DPP IV proteins may play important roles in progression and prognosis of patients with IHCC.
OncoTargets and Therapy 02/2014; 7:297-304. DOI:10.2147/OTT.S57355 · 2.31 Impact Factor
"MME, which is identical to common acute leukemia antigen (CALLA), is a 90–110 kDa zinc binding cell surface peptidase, which cleaves small peptides, such as atrial natriuretic peptide, substance P, endothelin-1, and bombesin (for review see [46,47]). It also possesses elastase activity . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-induced genes are potential targets in cancer therapy. Responses to hypoxia have been extensively studied in vitro, however, they may differ in vivo due to the specific tumor microenvironment. In this study gene expression profiles were obtained from fresh human lung cancer tissue fragments cultured ex vivo under different oxygen concentrations in order to study responses to hypoxia in a model that mimics human lung cancer in vivo.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) fragments from altogether 70 patients were maintained ex vivo in normoxia or hypoxia in short-term culture. Viability, apoptosis rates and tissue hypoxia were assessed. Gene expression profiles were studied using Affymetrix GeneChip 1.0 ST microarrays.
Apoptosis rates were comparable in normoxia and hypoxia despite different oxygenation levels, suggesting adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia. Gene expression profiles in hypoxic compared to normoxic fragments largely overlapped with published hypoxia-signatures. While most of these genes were up-regulated by hypoxia also in NSCLC cell lines, membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME, neprilysin, CD10) expression was not increased in hypoxia in NSCLC cell lines, but in carcinoma-associated fibroblasts isolated from non-small cell lung cancers. High MME expression was significantly associated with poor overall survival in 342 NSCLC patients in a meta-analysis of published microarray datasets.
The novel ex vivo model allowed for the first time to analyze hypoxia-regulated gene expression in preserved human lung cancer tissue. Gene expression profiles in human hypoxic lung cancer tissue overlapped with hypoxia-signatures from cancer cell lines, however, the elastase MME was identified as a novel hypoxia-induced gene in lung cancer. Due to the lack of hypoxia effects on MME expression in NSCLC cell lines in contrast to carcinoma-associated fibroblasts, a direct up-regulation of stroma fibroblast MME expression under hypoxia might contribute to enhanced aggressiveness of hypoxic cancers.
BMC Cancer 01/2014; 14(1):40. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-14-40 · 3.36 Impact Factor
"Aside from its ability to regulate the effect of biological factors through its enzymatic activity, several data suggest that both glycoproteins exert other functions which contribute to tumor etiopathogenesis. Thus, NEP can influence by itself some signal transduction pathways that regulate cell-growth, migration, and apoptosis , and DPP IV may work as a functional collagen receptor with roles in T-cell activation in thymic ontogeny  and also regulate tumor cell behavior through interaction with fibroblast activation protein-α. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cell-surface glycoproteins play critical roles in cell-to-cell recognition, signal transduction and regulation, thus being crucial in cell proliferation and cancer etiogenesis and development. DPP IV and NEP are ubiquitous glycopeptidases closely linked to tumor pathogenesis and development, and they are used as markers in some cancers. In the present study, the activity and protein and mRNA expression of these glycoproteins were analysed in a subset of clear-cell (CCRCC) and chromophobe (ChRCC) renal cell carcinomas, and in renal oncocytomas (RO).
Peptidase activities were measured by conventional enzymatic assays with fluorogen-derived substrates. Gene expression was quantitatively determined by qRT-PCR and membrane-bound protein expression and distribution analysis was performed by specific immunostaining.
The activity of both glycoproteins was sharply decreased in the three histological types of renal tumors. Protein and mRNA expression was strongly downregulated in tumors from distal nephron (ChRCC and RO). Moreover, soluble DPP IV activity positively correlated with the aggressiveness of CCRCCs (higher activities in high grade tumors).
These results support the pivotal role for DPP IV and NEP in the malignant transformation pathways and point to these peptidases as potential diagnostic markers.
BMC Cancer 05/2010; 10(1):193. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-10-193 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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