Clinical and mutational spectrum of Mowat-Wilson syndrome.
ABSTRACT Mowat-Wilson Syndrome is a recently delineated mental retardation syndrome usually associated with multiple malformations and a recognizable facial phenotype caused by defects of the transcriptional repressor ZFHX1B. To address the question of clinical and mutational variability, we analysed a large number of patients with suspected Mowat-Wilson Syndrome (MWS). Without prior knowledge of their mutational status, 70 patients were classified into "typical MWS", "ambiguous" and "atypical" groups according to their facial phenotype. Using FISH, qPCR and sequencing, ZFHX1B deletions, splice site or truncating mutations were detected in all 28 patients classified as typical MWS. No ZFHX1B defect was apparent in the remaining 15 cases with ambiguous facial features or in the 27 atypical patients. Genotype-phenotype analysis confirmed that ZFHX1B deletions and stop mutations result in a recognizable facial dysmorphism with associated severe mental retardation and variable malformations such as Hirschsprung disease and congenital heart defects. Our findings indicate that structural eye anomalies such as microphthalmia should be considered as part of the MWS spectrum. We also show that agenesis of the corpus callosum and urogenital anomalies (especially hypospadias) are significant positive predictors of a ZFHX1B defect. Based on our observation of affected siblings and the number of MWS cases previously reported, we suggest a recurrence risk of around 1%. The lack of missense mutations in MWS and MWS-like patients suggests there may be other, as yet unrecognized phenotypes, associated with missense mutations of this transcription factor.
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ABSTRACT: Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome characterized by moderate or severe intellectual disability, a characteristic facial appearance, microcephaly, epilepsy, agenesis or hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, congenital heart defects, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies. It is caused by de novo heterozygous loss of function mutations including nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, and deletions in ZEB2 at 2q22. ZEB2 encodes the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox 2 protein consisting of 1,214 amino acids. Herein, we report 13 nonsense and 27 frameshift mutations from 40 newly identified MWS patients in Japan. Although the clinical findings of all the Japanese MWS patients with nonsense and frameshift mutations were quite similar to the previous review reports of MWS caused by nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations and deletions of ZEB2, the frequencies of microcephaly, Hirschsprung disease, and urogenital/renal anomalies were small. Patients harbored mutations spanning the region between the amino acids 55 and 1,204 in wild-type ZEB2. There was no obvious genotype-phenotype correlation among the patients. A transfection study demonstrated that the cellular level of the longest form of the mutant ZEB2 protein harboring the p.D1204Rfs*29 mutation was remarkably low. The results showed that the 3'-end frameshift mutation of ZEB2 causes MWS due to ZEB2 instability. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 04/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mowat–Wilson syndrome (MWS) is characterized by moderate to severe intellectual disability and distinctive facial features in association with variable structural congenital anomalies/clinical features including congenital heart disease, Hirschsprung disease, hypospadias, agenesis of the corpus callosum, short stature, epilepsy, and microcephaly. Less common clinical features include ocular anomalies, craniosynostosis, mild intellectual disability, and choanal atresia. These cases may be more difficult to diagnose. In this report, we add 28 MWS patients with molecular confirmation of ZEB2 mutation, including seven with an uncommon presenting feature. Among the “unusual” patients, two patients had clinical features of charge syndrome including choanal atresia, coloboma, cardiac defects, genitourinary anomaly (1/2), and severe intellectual disability; two patients had craniosynostosis; and three patients had mild intellectual disability. Sixteen patients have previously-unreported mutations in ZEB2. Genotype-phenotype correlations were suggested in those with mild intellectual disability (two had a novel missense mutation in ZEB2, one with novel splice site mutation). This report increases the number of reported patients with MWS with unusual features, and is the first report of MWS in children previously thought to have CHARGE syndrome. These patients highlight the importance of facial gestalt in the accurate identification of MWS when less common features are present. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A 08/2014; · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular malformations are a singularly important class of birth defects and, due to dramatic improvements in medical and surgical care, there are now large numbers of adult survivors. The etiologies are complex, but there is strong evidence that genetic factors play a crucial role. Over the last 15 years there has been enormous progress in the discovery of causative genes for syndromic heart malformations and in rare families with Mendelian forms. The rapid characterization of genomic disorders as major contributors to congenital heart defects is also notable. The genes identified encode many transcription factors, chromatin regulators, growth factors and signal transduction pathways- all unified by their required roles in normal cardiac development. Genome-wide sequencing of the coding regions promises to elucidate genetic causation in several disorders affecting cardiac development. Such comprehensive studies evaluating both common and rare variants would be essential in characterizing gene-gene interactions, as well as in understanding the gene-environment interactions that increase the susceptibility to congenital heart defects.European journal of medical genetics 04/2014; · 1.57 Impact Factor