Bioefficacy of a novel calcium-potassium salt of (-)-hydroxycitric acid.

InterHealth Research Center, Benicia, CA, USA.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis (Impact Factor: 4.44). 12/2005; 579(1-2):149-62. DOI: 10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2005.02.021
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain forms of cancer. Popular strategies on weight loss often fail to address many key factors such as fat mass, muscle density, bone density, water mass, their inter-relationships and impact on energy production, body composition, and overall health and well-being. (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural plant extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia, has been reported to promote body fat loss in humans without stimulating the central nervous system. The level of effectiveness of G. cambogia extract is typically attributed solely to HCA. However, other components by their presence or absence may significantly contribute to its therapeutic effectiveness. Typically, HCA used in dietary weight loss supplement is bound to calcium, which results in a poorly soluble (<50%) and less bioavailable form. Conversely, the structural characteristics of a novel Ca2+/K+ bound (-)-HCA salt (HCA-SX or Super CitriMax) make it completely water soluble as well as bioavailable. An efficacious dosage of HCA-SX (4500 mg/day t.i.d.) provides a good source of Ca2+ (495 mg, 49.5% of RDI) and K+ (720 mg, 15% of RDI). Ca2+ ions are involved in weight management by increasing lipid metabolism, enhancing thermogenesis, and increasing bone density. K+, on the other hand, increases energy, reduces hypertension, increases muscle strength and regulates arrhythmias. Both Ca and K act as buffers in pH homeostasis. HCA-SX has been shown to increase serotonin availability, reduce appetite, increase fat oxidation, improve blood lipid levels, reduce body weight, and modulate a number of obesity regulatory genes without affecting the mitochondrial and nuclear proteins required for normal biochemical and physiological functions.

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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of administration methods for on Garcinia cambogia on blood Garcinia cambogia concentration and antioxidative levels. Rats were divided into three groups: G1 (normal group), G2 (one administration of Garcinia cambogia extract 2,800 mg/kg b.w.), G3 (three separate administrations every 6 h of Garcinia cambogia extract 750, 850, and 1,200 mg/kg b.w. for 18 h). Blood samples were collected every hour, and animals sacrificed 18 h after the oral administration of Garcinia cambogia extract. We examined changes in the serum concentration of Garcinia cambogia by HPLC analysis. Two hours following an oral administration of Garcinia cambogia extract (2,800 mg/kg b.w.), serum Garcinia cambogia levels reached their maximum, but gradually decreased until 10 hours when it was no longer detectable. In contrast, serum Garcinia cambogia levels under G3 administration were maintained above a certain level after 18 h. To determine whether this level of Garcinia cambogia could affect blood oxidative levels, we measured serum lipid peroxidation by TBARS levels. TBARS levels from G3 treatment were significantly lower than G1 and G2. To analyze other antioxidative activities, radical scavenging activities were measured by the DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. There were no significant differences between the groups in DPPH radical scavenging activity. However, ABTS radical scavenging activity significantly increased with G3 treatment compared with G1 and G2. In conclusion, our data show that three times administration of Garcinia cambogia every 6 h may helpful for maintaining serum Garcinia cambogia levels and antioxidative effects.
    Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 06/2013; 42(6). DOI:10.3746/jkfn.2013.42.6.856
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    ABSTRACT: The fruit rind of Garcinia gummi-gutta, commonly known as Garcinia cambogia (syn.), is extensively used traditionally as a flavourant in fish curries due to its sharp sour taste. Additional ethnobotanical uses include its use as a digestive and a traditional remedy to treat bowel complaints, intestinal parasites and rheumatism. This small fruit, reminiscent of a pumpkin in appearance, is currently most popularly used and widely advertised as a weight-loss supplement. Studies have shown that the extracts as well as (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a main organic acid component of the fruit rind, exhibited anti-obesity activity including reduced food intake and body fat gain by regulating the serotonin levels related to satiety, increased fat oxidation and decreased de novo lipogenesis. HCA is a potent inhibitor of adenosine triphosphate-citrate lyase, a catalyst for the conversion process of citrate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which plays a key role in fatty acid, cholesterol and triglycerides syntheses. The crude extract or constituents from the plant also exerted hypolipidaemic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, anthelmintic, anticholinesterase and hepatoprotective activities in in vitro and in vivo models. Phytochemical studies of various plant parts revealed the presence of mainly xanthones (e.g. carbogiol) and benzophenones (e.g. garcinol) together with organic acids (e.g. HCA) and amino acids (e.g. gamma aminobutyric acid). Currently, a large number of G. cambogia/HCA dietary supplements for weight management are being sold although the possible toxicity associated with the regular use of these supplements has raised concerns. In most cases, complaints have been related to multicomponent formulations and at this stage G. cambogia has not been confirmed as the potentially toxic culprit. This review presents a scientific overview of G. cambogia with reference to relevant botanical aspects, ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activity as well as toxicity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Fitoterapia 02/2015; 102(1):134-148. DOI:10.1016/j.fitote.2015.02.012 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is an emerging potential therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome due to its role in synthesis, secretion and folding of proteins. It leads to an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which along with mitochondrial ROS and reduced antioxidant defense, causing chronic cell injury. The present investigation aims to see the alterations in adipocytes due to ER stress and the protective effect of hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a bioactive from Garcinia species, to develop the same as a nutraceutical. ER stress was induced in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes by treating with tunicamycin (2µg/ml) for 18 hours. Alterations in cell viability, innate antioxidant system (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase), mitochondria (membrane potential, biogenesis, transition pore opening), and inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-1β) during ER stress, and co-treatment with HCA were analyzed. Endocrine function of adipocytes was also assessed by measuring adiponectin and leptin secretion. HCA protected the cells from ER stress by improving the antioxidant status and mitochondrial functions. The results validate nutraceutical properties of an edible bioactive, commonly used for culinary purpose. A more detailed study on the mechanism of action of HCA is required for its development as a therapeutic agent for metabolic syndrome.
    Free Radical Research 09/2014; 48(11):1-28. DOI:10.3109/10715762.2014.959514 · 2.99 Impact Factor

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